針對大麻類證券的清算所限制

斯圖加特交易所(Boerse Stuttgart)和明訊銀行(Clearstream Banking)宣布其將不再對主營業務與大麻及其它毒品直接或間接相關的證券提供服務。 因此,該等證券將不會再於斯圖加特(SWB)或法蘭克福(FWB)證券交易所交易。自2018年9月19日收槃開始,IBKR將釆取以下行動:

  1. 對於客戶未釆取行動平倉,但也不能轉至美國掛牌市場的受影響頭寸,進行強制平倉;
  2. 對於客戶未釆取行動平倉,但能夠轉至美國掛牌市場的受影響頭寸,將股票轉至其美國掛牌市場。

下方表格列出了斯圖加特交易所和明訊銀行截至2018年8月7日公布的受影響證券。該表格還標記了受影響證券是否能夠轉至美國掛牌市場。注意,清算所已聲明該列表可能尚不完整,建議客戶檢查其各自網站了解最新信息。

ISIN 名稱 交易所 是否可轉至美國? 美國代碼
CA00258G1037

ABATTIS BIOCEUTICALS CORP

FWB2

ATTBF

CA05156X1087

AURORA CANNABIS INC

FWB2, SWB2

ACBFF

CA37956B1013

GLOBAL CANNABIS APPLICATIONS

FWB2

FUAPF

US3988451072

GROOVE BOTANICALS INC

FWB

GRVE

US45408X3089

INDIA GLOBALIZATION CAPITAL

FWB2, SWB2

ICG

CA4576371062

INMED PHARMACEUTICALS INC

FWB2

IMLFF

CA53224Y1043

LIFESTYLE DELIVERY SYSTEMS I

FWB2, SWB2

LDSYF

CA56575M1086

MARAPHARM VENTURES INC

FWB2, SWB2

MRPHF

CA5768081096

MATICA ENTERPRISES INC

FWB2, SWB2

MQPXF

CA62987D1087

NAMASTE TECHNOLOGIES INC

FWB2, SWB2

NXTTF

CA63902L1004

NATURALLY SPLENDID ENT LTD

FWB2, SWB2

NSPDF

CA88166Y1007

TETRA BIO-PHARMA INC

FWB2

TBPMF

CA92347A1066

VERITAS PHARMA INC

FWB2

VRTHF

CA1377991023

CANNTAB THERAPEUTICS LTD

FWB2  
CA74737N1042

QUADRON CANNATECH CORP

FWB2  
CA84730M1023

SPEAKEASY CANNABIS CLUB LTD

FWB2, SWB2  
CA86860J1066

SUPREME CANNABIS CO INC/THE

FWB2  
CA92858L2021

VODIS PHARMACEUTICALS INC

FWB2  

 重要注意事項:

  • 請注意,美國掛牌證券通常為場外交易(PINK),且以美元(而非歐元)計價, 因此,除市場風險外,您還將面對匯率風險。
  • 持有粉單(PINK Sheet)證券的賬戶持有人需要有美國(仙股) 交易許可才能下達開倉定單。
  • 擁有美國(仙股) 交易許可之賬戶的所有使用者均須使用雙因素驗證登錄賬戶。

ESMA差價合約新規推行概述 - 僅限零售客戶

Overview: 

歐洲證券與市場管理局(ESMA)頒布了適用於交易差價合約(CFD)的零售客戶的新法規,自2018年8月1日起生效。專業客戶不受影響。

法規包含:1) 杠杆限制;2) 以單個賬戶為單位的保證金平倉規則;3) 以單個賬戶為單位的負余額保護規則;4) 對交易差價合約激勵措施的限制;以及 5) 標准的風險警告。

大多數客戶(受監管的實體除外)一開始都會被分類為零售客戶。IBKR在某些情況下
可同意將零售客戶重新分類為專業客戶或將專業客戶重新分類為
零售客戶。更多詳細信息,請參見MiFID分類

以下板塊詳細說明了IBKR(英國)是如何貫徹ESMA規定的。

1 杠杆限制

1.1 ESMA保證金
ESMA針對不同的底層證券設置了不同的杠杆限制:

  • 貨幣對為3.33%;主要貨幣對為美元、加元、歐元、英鎊、瑞郎、日圓間的任意組合
  • 非主要貨幣對及主要指數為5%;
    • 非主要貨幣對為包括上方未列出的貨幣的任意組合,如美元/離岸人民幣
    • 主要指數為IBUS500、IBUS30、IBUST100、IBGB100、IBDE30、IBEU50、IBFR40、IBJP225、IBAU200
  • 非主要股票指數為10%,包括IBES35、IBCH20、IBNL25、IBHK50
  • 個股為20%

 1.2應用的保證金 - 標准保證金要求

除ESMA的保證金要求外,IBKR(英國)還基於底層證券的曆史波動率及其它因素實施其自有的保證金要求(IB保證金) 如果IB的保證金率高於ESMA規定的比例,則應用IB的保證金率。

點此可查看適用的IB和ESMA保證金要求詳情。

1.2.1應用的保證金 - 最低集中保證金要求

如果您的投資組合包含一小部分CFD頭寸,或者如果最大的兩種頭寸占據了絕大多數份額,則您的賬戶將應用集中保證金。我們會通過對最大的兩種頭寸假設30%的跌幅、對其余頭寸假設5%的跌幅來對您的投資組合進行壓力測試。如果總虧損額高於標准要求,則將用總虧損額作為維持保證金要求。

對於零售客戶,初始保證金原則上是最低集中維持保證金的兩倍(如上所述)。但是為了避免對相對較小的頭寸應用過高的初始保證金要求,我們會針對零售客戶將初始集中保證金減少10萬美元(最終結果不能為負);

應用的集中保證金要求 = 取最大值(計算所得的集中保證金要求 – 100k,0)。

減少10萬美元的作用在於消除對低於25萬美元等值的集中頭寸收取集中保證金。之后的保證金則會逐步增加,如50萬美元的集中頭寸其初始保證金是40%,100萬美元的集中頭寸其初始保證金則是50%。以上例子均假設客戶最多只有兩種頭寸;如果還有其它頭寸,總的保證金會降低。

具體范例請見此處(零售客戶投資組合)。

1.3可用於初始保證金的資金

您只可使用現金作為初始保證金開立差價合約頭寸。已實現的差價合約盈利將包括在現金中且立即可用;現金無需先結算。然而,未實現的盈利不得用於滿足初始保證金要求。

1.4自動轉移資金以滿足初始保證金要求(賬戶F板塊)

IBKR(英國)會自動將您主賬戶中的資金轉移至賬戶的F板塊,用於滿足差價合約的初始保證金要求。

然而,需注意的是,系統不會轉移資金用於滿足差價合約維持保證金要求。因此,如符合條件的資產(參照下方定義)不足以滿足保證金要求,則即使您的主賬戶中有足夠的資金,賬戶仍會被清算。如您想避免被清算,您必須在賬戶管理中將多余的資金轉移至賬戶的F板塊。

2 保證金平倉規則

2.1維持保證金計算與清算

如果符合條件的資產跌至開倉初始保證金的50%以下,ESMA要求IBKR清算差價合約頭寸。 符合條件的資產包括F板塊下的現金(不包括賬戶任何其它板塊下的現金)及未實現的差價合約盈虧(盈利及虧損)。

計算的基礎為開立差價合約頭寸時存入的初始保證金。 換言之,當差價合約頭寸的價值發生變動時,初始保證金的金額不會變化,這與非差價合約頭寸適用的保證金計算方式不同。

2.1.1舉例

您的差價合約賬戶中有2000歐元現金。您想以100歐元的限價買入100份XYZ的差價合約。首先成交了50份合約,然后再成交其余的50份。隨著您的交易成交,您的可用現金如下減少:

  現金 淨資產* 頭寸 價格 價值 未實現盈虧 初始保證金 維持保證金 可用現金 維持保證金不足
交易前 2000 2000             2000  
第一次交易后 2000 2000 50 100 5000 0 1000 500 1000
第二次交易后 2000 2000 100 100 10000 0 2000 1000 0

*淨資產等於現金加未實現盈虧

價格上漲至110。您的淨資產現為3000,但由於您的可用現金仍為0,且在ESMA規則下初始保證金和維持保證金不變,您不得開立新的頭寸:

  現金 股票 頭寸 價格 價值 未實現盈虧 初始保證金 維持保證金 可用現金 維持保證金不足
變化 2000 3000 100 110 11000 1000 2000 1000 0

 然后價格下跌至95。您的淨資產跌至1500,但鑒於淨資產仍大於1000,無需追加保證金:

  現金 股票 頭寸 價格 價值 未實現盈虧 初始保證金 維持保證金 可用現金 維持保證金不足
變化 2000 1500 100 95 9500 (500) 2000 1000 0

價格進一步跌至85,導致保證金不足并觸發清算:

  現金 股票 頭寸 價格 價值 未實現盈虧 初始保證金 維持保證金 可用現金 維持保證金不足
變化 2000 500 100 85 8500 (1500) 2000 1000 0

 

3 負資產保護

ESMA規則規定,您交易差價合約的損失以划撥的專項資金為上限。不得清算其它金融產品(如股票或期貨)來填補差價合約的保證金缺口。*

因此,您主賬戶證券和大宗商品板塊的資產,以及F板塊中持有的非差價合約資產不列入差價合約交易的風險資本。但是,F賬戶段中的所有現金都可用以彌補差價合約交易產生的虧損。

由於負資產保護對IBKR來說意味著要承擔額外風險,對於隔夜持有的差價合約頭寸我們會向零售客戶額外收取1%的融資息差。您可在此處查看詳細的差價合約融資利率。

*我們無法清算非差價合約頭寸來彌補差價合約不足,但可以清算差價合約頭寸來彌補非差價合約不足。

4 交易差價合約的激勵措施

ESMA規定對與差價合約交易相關的金錢及某些非金錢激勵均予以禁止。IBKR不對交易差價合約提供任何獎金或其它激勵。

5 風險警告

差價合約屬於復雜金融產品,其交易存在高風險,由於杠杆的作用,可能會出現迅速虧損。

在通過IBKR(UK)交易差價合約時,有67%的零售投資者賬戶出現了虧損。

您應考慮自己是否理解差價合約的運作機制以及自己是否能夠承受虧損風險。

 

 

Clearinghouse Restrictions on Cannabis Securities

Boerse Stuttgart and Clearstream Banking have announced that they will no longer provide services for issues whose main business is connected directly or indirectly to cannabis and other narcotics products.  Consequently, those securities will no longer trade on the Stuttgart (SWB) or Frankfurt (FWB) stock exchanges. Effective as of the 19 September 2018 close, IBKR will take the following actions:

  1. Force close any impacted positions which clients have not acted to close and that are not eligible for transfer to a U.S. listing; and
  2. Force transfer to a U.S. listing any impacted positions which clients have not acted to close and that are eligible for such transfer.

Outlined in the table below are impacted issues as announced by the Boerse Stuttgart and Clearstream Banking  as of 7 August 2018. This table includes a notation as to whether the impacted issue is eligible for transfer to a U.S. listing. Note that the clearinghouses have indicated that this list may not yet be complete and clients are advised to review their respective websites for the most current information.

ISIN NAME EXCHANGE U.S. TRANSFER ELIGIBLE? U.S. SYMBOL
CA00258G1037

ABATTIS BIOCEUTICALS CORP

FWB2 YES

ATTBF

CA05156X1087

AURORA CANNABIS INC

FWB2, SWB2 YES

ACBFF

CA37956B1013

GLOBAL CANNABIS APPLICATIONS

FWB2 YES

FUAPF

US3988451072

GROOVE BOTANICALS INC

FWB YES

GRVE

US45408X3089

INDIA GLOBALIZATION CAPITAL

FWB2, SWB2 YES

ICG

CA4576371062

INMED PHARMACEUTICALS INC

FWB2 YES

IMLFF

CA53224Y1043

LIFESTYLE DELIVERY SYSTEMS I

FWB2, SWB2 YES

LDSYF

CA56575M1086

MARAPHARM VENTURES INC

FWB2, SWB2 YES

MRPHF

CA5768081096

MATICA ENTERPRISES INC

FWB2, SWB2 YES

MQPXF

CA62987D1087

NAMASTE TECHNOLOGIES INC

FWB2, SWB2 YES

NXTTF

CA63902L1004

NATURALLY SPLENDID ENT LTD

FWB2, SWB2 YES

NSPDF

CA88166Y1007

TETRA BIO-PHARMA INC

FWB2 YES

TBPMF

CA92347A1066

VERITAS PHARMA INC

FWB2 YES

VRTHF

CA1377991023

CANNTAB THERAPEUTICS LTD

FWB2 NO  
CA74737N1042

QUADRON CANNATECH CORP

FWB2 NO  
CA84730M1023

SPEAKEASY CANNABIS CLUB LTD

FWB2, SWB2 NO  
CA86860J1066

SUPREME CANNABIS CO INC/THE

FWB2 NO  
CA92858L2021

VODIS PHARMACEUTICALS INC

FWB2 NO  

 IMPORTANT NOTES:

  • Note that the U.S. listings generally trade over-the-counter (PINK) and are denominated in USD not EUR thereby exposing you to exchange rate risk in addition to market risk.
  • Account holders maintaining PINK Sheet securities require United States (Penny Stocks) trading permissions in order to enter opening orders.
  • All users on accounts maintaining United States (Penny Stocks) trading permissions are required use 2 Factor login protection when logging into the account.

Overview of ESMA CFD Rules Implementation at IBKR - Retail Investors Only

Overview: 


CFDs are complex instruments and come with a high risk of losing money rapidly due to leverage.

69% of retail investor accounts lose money when trading CFDs with IBKR (UK).

You should consider whether you understand how CFDs work and whether you can afford to take the high risk of losing your money.

 

The European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA) enacted new rules applicable to retail clients trading CFDs, effective 1st August 2018. Professional clients are unaffected.

The rules consist of: 1) leverage limits; 2) a margin close out rule on a per account basis; 3) negative balance protection on a per account basis; 4) a restriction on the incentives offered to trade CFDs; and 5) a standardized risk warning.

Most clients (excepting regulated entities) are initially categorised as Retail Clients. IBKR may in certain circumstances agree to reclassify a Retail Client as a Professional Client, or a Professional Client as a Retail Client. Please see MiFID Categorisation for further detail.

The following sections detail how IBKR (UK) has implemented the ESMA Decision.

1 Leverage Limits

1.1 ESMA Margins
Leverage limits were set by ESMA at different levels depending on the underlying:

  • 3.33% for major currency pairs; Major currency pairs are any combination of USD; CAD; EUR; GBP; CHF; JPY
  • 5% for non-major currency pairs and major indices;
    • Non-major currency pairs are any combination that includes a currency not listed above, e.g. USD.CNH
    • Major indices are IBUS500; IBUS30; IBUST100; IBGB100; IBDE30; IBEU50; IBFR40; IBJP225; IBAU200
  • 10% for non-major equity indices; IBES35; IBCH20; IBNL25; IBHK50
  • 20% for individual equities

 1.2 Applied Margins - Standard Requirement

In addition to the ESMA Margins, IBKR (UK) establishes its own margin requirements (IB Margins) based on the historical volatility of the underlying, and other factors. We will apply the IB Margins if they are higher than those prescribed by ESMA.

Details of applicable IB and ESMA margins can be found here.

1.2.1 Applied Margins - Concentration Minimum

A concentration charge is applied if your portfolio consists of a small number of CFD positions, or if the two largest positions have a dominant weight. We stress the portfolio by applying a 30% adverse move on the two largest positions and a 5% adverse move on the remaining positions. The total loss is applied as the maintenance margin requirement if it is greater than the standard requirement.

1.3 Funds Available for Initial Margin

You can only use cash to post initial margin to open a CFD position. Realized CFD profits are included in cash and are available immediately; the cash does not have to settle first. Unrealized profits however cannot be used to meet initial margin requirements.

1.4 Automatic Funding of Initial Margin Requirements (F-segments)

IBKR (UK) automatically transfers funds from your main account to the F-segment of your account to fund initial margin requirements for CFDs.

Note however that no transfers are made to satisfy CFD maintenance margin requirements. Therefore if qualifying equity (defined below) becomes insufficient to meet margin requirements, a liquidation will occur even if you have ample funds in your main account. If you wish to avoid a liquidation you must transfer additional funds to the F-segment in Account Management.

2 Margin Close Out Rule

2.1 Maintenance Margin Calculations & Liquidations

ESMA requires IBKR to liquidate CFD positions latest when qualifying equity falls below 50% of the initial margin posted to open the positions. IBKR may close out positions sooner if our risk view is more conservative. Qualifying equity for this purpose includes cash in the F-segment (excluding cash in any other account segment) and unrealized CFD P&L (positive and negative).

The basis for the calculation is the initial margin posted at the time of opening a CFD position. In other words, and unlike margin calculations applicable to non-CFD positions, the initial margin amount does not change when the value of the open position changes.

2.1.1 Example

You have EUR 2000 cash in your CFD account. You want to buy 100 CFDs of XYZ at a limit price of EUR 100. You are first filled 50 CFDs and then the remaining 50. Your available cash reduces as your trades are filled:

  Cash Equity* Position Price Value Unrealized P&L IM MM Available Cash MM Violation
Pre Trade 2000 2000             2000  
Post Trade 1 2000 2000 50 100 5000 0 1000 500 1000 No
Post Trade 2 2000 2000 100 100 10000 0 2000 1000 0 No

*Equity equals Cash plus Unrealized P&L

The price increases to 110. Your equity is now 3000, but you cannot open additional positions because your available cash is still 0, and under the ESMA rules IM and MM remain unchanged:

  Cash Equity Position Price Value Unrealized P&L IM MM Available Cash MM Violation
Change 2000 3000 100 110 11000 1000 2000 1000 0 No

 The price then drops to 95. Your equity declines to 1500 but there is no margin violation since it is still greater than the 1000 requirement:

  Cash Equity Position Price Value Unrealized P&L IM MM Available Cash MM Violation
Change 2000 1500 100 95 9500 (500) 2000 1000 0 No

The price falls further to 85, causing a margin violation and triggering a liquidation:

  Cash Equity Position Price Value Unrealized P&L IM MM Available Cash MM Violation
Change 2000 500 100 85 8500 (1500) 2000 1000 0 Yes

 

3 Negative Equity Protection

The ESMA Decision limits your CFD-related liability to the funds dedicated to CFD-trading. Other financial instruments (e.g. shares or futures) cannot be liquidated to satisfy a CFD margin-deficit.*

Therefore assets in the security and commodity segments of your main account, and non-CFD assets held in the F-segment, are not part of your capital at risk for CFD trading. However, all cash in the F-segment can be used to cover losses arising from CFD trading.

As Negative Equity Protection represents additional risk to IBKR, we will charge retail investors an additional financing spread of 1% for CFD positions held overnight. You can find detailed CFD financing rates here.

*Although we cannot liquidate non-CFD positions to cover a CFD deficit, we can liquidate CFD positions to cover a non-CFD deficit.

4 Incentives Offered to trade CFDs

The ESMA Decision imposes a ban on monetary and certain types of non-monetary benefits related to CFD trading. IBKR does not offer any bonus or other incentives to trade CFDs.

 

Additional Information Regarding the Use of Stop Orders

U.S. equity markets occasionally experience periods of extraordinary volatility and price dislocation. Sometimes these occurrences are prolonged and at other times they are of very short duration. Stop orders may play a role in contributing to downward price pressure and market volatility and may result in executions at prices very far from the trigger price. 

Investors may use stop sell orders to help protect a profit position in the event the price of a stock declines or to limit a loss. In addition, investors with a short position may use stop buy orders to help limit losses in the event of price increases. However, because stop orders, once triggered, become market orders, investors immediately face the same risks inherent with market orders – particularly during volatile market conditions when orders may be executed at prices materially above or below expected prices.
 
While stop orders may be a useful tool for investors to help monitor the price of their positions, stop orders are not without potential risks.  If you choose to trade using stop orders, please keep the following information in mind:
 
·         Stop prices are not guaranteed execution prices. A “stop order” becomes a “market order” when the “stop price” is reached and the resulting order is required to be executed fully and promptly at the current market price. Therefore, the price at which a stop order ultimately is executed may be very different from the investor’s “stop price.” Accordingly, while a customer may receive a prompt execution of a stop order that becomes a market order, during volatile market conditions, the execution price may be significantly different from the stop price, if the market is moving rapidly.
 
·         Stop orders may be triggered by a short-lived, dramatic price change. During periods of volatile market conditions, the price of a stock can move significantly in a short period of time and trigger an execution of a stop order (and the stock may later resume trading at its prior price level). Investors should understand that if their stop order is triggered under these circumstances, their order may be filled at an undesirable price, and the price may subsequently stabilize during the same trading day.
 
·         Sell stop orders may exacerbate price declines during times of extreme volatility. The activation of sell stop orders may add downward price pressure on a security. If triggered during a precipitous price decline, a sell stop order also is more likely to result in an execution well below the stop price.
 
·         Placing a “limit price” on a stop order may help manage some of these risks. A stop order with a “limit price” (a “stop limit” order) becomes a “limit order” when the stock reaches or exceeds the “stop price.” A “limit order” is an order to buy or sell a security for an amount no worse than a specific price (i.e., the “limit price”). By using a stop limit order instead of a regular stop order, a customer will receive additional certainty with respect to the price the customer receives for the stock. However, investors also should be aware that, because a sell order cannot be filled at a price that is lower (or a buy order for a price that is higher) than the limit price selected, there is the possibility that the order will not be filled at all. Customers should consider using limit orders in cases where they prioritize achieving a desired target price more than receiving an immediate execution irrespective of price.
 
·         The risks inherent in stop orders may be higher during illiquid market hours or around the open and close when markets may be more volatile. This may be of heightened importance for illiquid stocks, which may become even harder to sell at the then current price level and may experience added price dislocation during times of extraordinary market volatility. Customers should consider restricting the time of day during which a stop order may be triggered to prevent stop orders from activating during illiquid market hours or around the open and close when markets may be more volatile, and consider using other order types during these periods.
 
·         In light of the risks inherent in using stop orders, customers should carefully consider using other order types that may also be consistent with their trading needs.

到期相關清算

Background: 

除了在實時保證金不足時強行清算客戶頭寸的政策外,IB還會根據某些到期相關事件(會導致不應有的風險和/或操作問題)清算頭寸。下方列出了此類事件範例。

期權行權

如果行權/轉讓會導致帳戶保證金不足,IB保留禁止股票期權行權并/或平倉空頭期權的權利。由於頭寸已全額支付,因此購買期權通常不需要保證金,一旦行權,帳戶持有人便有義務全額支付後續多頭股票頭寸(現金帳戶看漲期權行權或100%保證金股票)或支付多頭/空頭股票頭寸(保證金帳戶看漲/看跌期權行權)。如果在交割時,底層證券價格出現重大不利變化,行權之前不具備充足權益的帳戶會面臨不應有的風險。這種無擔保風險尤為明顯,並且可能會超出多頭期權所持有的任何價內價值,尤其是在到期時清算所以每股低達$0.01美元的價格自動行使期權的時候。

例如,第一天,帳戶權益只包括20張行使價為$50美元的XYZ多頭看漲期權,這些合約在底層證券價格為$51美元時以每份$1美元的價格平倉。假設情境1中,期權自動行權,並且XYZ在第二天的開盤價達到$51美元。假設情境2中,期權自動行權,並且XYZ在第二天的開盤價為$48美元。

帳戶餘額 到期前

情境1 - XYZ開盤價 @ $51

情境 2 - XYZ 開盤價 @ $48
現金
$0.00 ($100,000.00) ($100,000.00)
多頭股票 
$0.00 $102,000.00 $96,000.00

多頭期權*

$2,000.00 $0.00 $0.00
凈清算權益/(不足) $2,000.00 $2,000.00 ($4,000.00)
保證金要求
$0.00 $25,500.00 $25,500.00
多餘保證金/(不足) $0.00 ($23,500.00) ($29,500.00)

*多頭期權無貸款價值。
 

為在到期日臨近時防止發生這些情景,IB將假設接近實際的底層證券價格情境并評估股票交割帳戶風險來模擬到期影響。如果風險過高,IB保留一下權利:1) 到期前清算期權;2)允許期權失效;及/或3) 允許交割并立即清算底層證券。此外,帳戶不能開立新的頭寸以防增加風險。

如果IB系統預測結算會導致保證金不足,那麼IB也會保留在結算前的下午清算頭寸的權利。為在到期日臨近時防止發生這些情景,IB將假設接近實際的底層證券價格情境并評估結算后帳戶風險來模擬到期影響。例如,如果IB預測結算將導致頭寸從帳戶中移除(如期權將在價外到期或現金結算期權在價內到期),那麼IB系統將評估結算的保證金影響。

如果IB認為風險過高,那麼IB可能會清算帳戶中的頭寸以解決預測的保證金不足問題。帳戶持有人可通過TWS中的帳戶窗口監控與保證金風險相關的到期期權。預測超額保證金將顯示在“到期后保證金”(見下方)一行,如果其為負數并紅色顯示,則表明您的帳戶可能強制頭寸清算。風險計算在下一個到期日的前面三天進行,並且每15分鐘更新一次。請注意,某些分層結構帳戶類型(如獨立交易限制帳戶)的這一信息只會在主帳戶層級顯示并計算。

請注意,IB通常在收盤前兩小時發起到期相關清算,但保留條件允許的情況下提前或推遲此類清算程序。此外,清算會更具特定的帳戶條件(包括凈清算價值、預測到期后保證金不足以及期權行使價格與底層證券價格之間關係)進行優先排序。

 

實物交割期貨

除了將貨幣作為其底層證券的某些期貨合約外,IB通常不允許客戶發起或接收實物結算期貨或期貨期權合約的底層交割。為避免交割即將到期的合約,客戶必須延期合約或在合約指定的結算截止日期(我們網站中列有)前平倉頭寸。

請注意,客戶有義務瞭解結算截止日期,并知曉未在指定時間段內結算的實物交割合約可能會在無事先通知的情況下被IB清算。

Can I set a maximum dollar exposure for my account?

Unless an account holds solely long stock, bond, option or forex positions which have been paid for in full (i.e., no margin) and/or contains limited risk derivative positions such as option spreads, it is at risk of losing more than the original investment.

In the case of portfolios where the risk is indeterminable, there is no mechanism whereby the account holder can specify, at the portfolio level, a maximum dollar threshold of losses which, if reached, would limit their liability. IB does, however, provide a variety of tools and settings designed to assist account holders with managing and monitoring their exposure, including specialized order types, alerts and the Risk Navigator. A brief overview of each is provided below:

Order Types

Account holders may manage exposure on an individual trade level through several order types designed to limit risk. These order types include, but are not limited to: Stop, Adjustable Stop, Stop Limit, Trailing Stop and Trailing Stop Limit Orders. All of these order types allow you to specify an exit level for your individual positions based on your risk tolerance. For example, an account holder long 200 shares of hypothetical stock XYZ at an average price of $20.00 seeking to limit their loss to $500.00 could create a Stop Limit order having a Stop Price of $18.00 (the price at which a limit sell order is triggered) and a Limit Price of $17.50 (the lowest price at which the shares would be sold).  It's important to note, however, that while a Stop Limit eliminates the price risk associated with a Stop order where the execution price is not guaranteed, it exposes the account holder to the risk that the order may never be filled even if the Stop Price is reached.  For instructions on creating a Stop Limit order, click here.

 

Alerts

Alerts provide account holders the ability to specify events or conditions which, if met, trigger an action. The conditions can be based on time, trades that occur in the account, price levels, trade volume, or a margin cushion. For example, if the account holder wanted to be notified if their account was nearing a margin deficiency and forced liquidation, an alert could be set up to send an email if the margin cushion fell to some desired percentage, say 10% of equity. The action may consist of an email or text notification or the triggering of a risk reducing trade. For instructions on creating an Alert, click here.

Risk Navigator

The Risk Navigator is a real-time market risk management platform contained within the TraderWorkstation, which provides the account holder with the ability to create 'what-if' scenarios to measure exposure given user-defined changes to positions, prices, date and volatility variables which may impact their risk profile. For information on using an Risk Navigator, click here.

Expiration & Corporate Action Related Liquidations

Background: 

In addition to the policy of force liquidating client positions in the event of a real-time margin deficiency, IB will also liquidate positions based upon certain expiration or corporate action related events which, after giving effect to, would create undue risk and/or operational concerns.  Examples of such events are outlined below.

Option Exercise

IB reserves the right to prohibit the exercise of stock options and/or close short options if the effect of the exercise/assignment would be to place the account in margin deficit. While the purchase of an option generally requires no margin since the position is paid in full, once exercised the account holder is obligated to either pay for the ensuing long stock position in full (in the case of a call exercised in a cash account or stock subject to 100% margin) or finance the long/short stock position (in the case of a call/put exercised in a margin account).  Accounts which do not have sufficient equity on hand prior to exercise introduce undue risk should an adverse price change in the underlying occur upon delivery. This uncollateralized risk can be especially pronounced and may far exceed any in-the-money value the long option may have held, particularly at expiration when clearinghouses automatically exercise options at in-the-money levels as low as $0.01 per share.

Take, for example, an account whose equity on Day 1 consists solely of 20 long $50 strike call options in hypothetical stock XYZ which have closed at expiration at $1 per contract with the underlying at $51. Assume under Scenario 1 that the options are all auto-exercised and XYZ opens at $51 on Day 2. Assume under Scenario 2 that the options are all auto-exercised and XYZ opens at $48 on Day 2.

Account Balance Pre-Expiration

Scenario 1 - XYZ Opens @ $51

Scenario 2 - XYZ Opens @ $48
Cash
$0.00 ($100,000.00) ($100,000.00)
Long Stock   $0.00 $102,000.00 $96,000.00

Long Option*

$2,000.00 $0.00 $0.00
Net Liquidating Equity/(Deficit) $2,000.00 $2,000.00 ($4,000.00)
Margin Requirement
$0.00 $25,500.00 $25,500.00
Margin Excess/(Deficiency) $0.00 ($23,500.00) ($29,500.00)

*Long option has no loan value.
 

To protect against these scenarios as expiration nears, IB will simulate the effect of expiration assuming plausible underlying price scenarios and evaluating the exposure of each account assuming stock delivery. If the exposure is deemed excessive, IB reserves the right to either: 1) liquidate options prior to expiration; 2) allow the options to lapse; and/or 3) allow delivery and liquidate the underlying at any time.  In addition, the account may be restricted from opening new positions to prevent an increase in exposure. IB determines the number of contracts that will be lapsed by IB/auto-exercised shortly after the end of trading on the date of expiration. The effect of any after hours trading you conduct on that day may not be taken into account in this exposure calculation.

While IB reserves the right to take these actions, account holders are solely responsible for managing the exercise/assignment risks associated with the positions in their accounts. IB is under no obligation to manage such risks for you.

IB also reserves the right to liquidate positions on the afternoon before settlement if IB’s systems project that the effect of settlement would result in a margin deficit. To protect against these scenarios as expiration nears, IB will simulate the effect of expiration assuming plausible underlying price scenarios and evaluating the exposure of each account after settlement.  For instance, if IB projects that positions will be removed from the account as a result of settlement (e.g., if options will expire out of the money or cash-settled options will expire in the money), IB’s systems will evaluate the margin effect of those settlement events.

If IB determines the exposure is excessive, IB may liquidate positions in the account to resolve the projected margin deficiency.  Account holders may monitor this expiration related margin exposure via the Account window located within the TWS. The projected margin excess will be displayed on the line titled “Post-Expiry Margin” (see below) which, if negative and highlighted in red indicates that your account may be subject to forced position liquidations. This exposure calculation is performed 3 days prior to the next expiration and is updated approximately every 15 minutes.  Note that certain account types which employ a hierarchy structure (e.g., Separate Trading Limit account) will have this information presented only at the master account level where the computation is aggregated.

Note that IB generally initiates expiration related liquidations 2 hours prior to the close, but reserves the right to begin this process sooner or later should conditions warrant. In addition, liquidations are prioritized based upon a number of account-specific criteria including the Net Liquidating Value, projected post-expiration deficit, and the relationship between the option strike price and underlying.

 

Call Spreads in Advance of Ex-Dividend Date

In the event that you are holding a call spread (long and short calls having the same underlying) prior to an ex-dividend date in the underlying, and if you have not liquidated the spread or exercised the long call(s), IB reserves the right to: i) exercise some or all of the long call(s); and/or ii) liquidate (i.e., close out) some or all of the spreads - if IB, in its sole discretion, anticipates that: a) the short call(s) is (are) likely to be assigned; and b) your account would not ave sufficient equity to satisfy the liability to pay the dividend or to satisfy margin requirements generally.  In the event that IB exercises the long call(s) in this scenario and you are not assigned on the short call(s), you could suffer losses. Likewise, if IB liquidates some or all of your spread position, you may suffer losses or incur an investment result that was not your objective.

In order to avoid this scenario, you should carefully review your option positions and your account equity prior to any ex-dividend date of the underlying and you should manage your risk and your account accordingly.

 

Physically Delivered Futures

With the exception of certain futures contracts having currencies as their underlying, IB generally does not allow clients to make or receive delivery of the underlying for physically settled futures or futures option contracts. To avoid deliveries in an expiring contract, clients must either roll the contract forward or close the position prior to the Close-Out Deadline specific to that contract (a list of which is provided on the website). 

Note that it is the client’s responsibility to be aware of the Close-Out Deadline and physically delivered contracts which are not closed out within the specified time frame may be liquidated by IB without prior notification.

Equity & Index Option Position Limits

Overview: 

Equity option exchanges define position limits for designated equity options classes.  These limits define position quantity limitations in terms of the equivalent number of underlying shares (described below) which cannot be exceeded at any time on either the bullish or bearish side of the market.  Account positions in excess of defined position limits may be subject to trade restriction or liquidation at any time without prior notification.

Background: 

Position limits are defined on regulatory websites and may change periodically.  Some contracts also have near-term limit requirements (near-term position limits are applied to the side of the market for those contracts that are in the closest expiring month issued).  Traders are responsible for monitoring their positions as well as the defined limit quantities to ensure compliance.  The following information defines how position limits are calculated;

 

Option position limits are determined as follows:

  • Bullish market direction -- long call & short put positions are aggregated and quantified in terms of equivalent shares of stock.
  • Bearish market direction -- long put & short call positions are aggregated and quantified in terms of equivalent shares of stock.

The following examples, using the 25,000 option contract limit, illustrate the operation of position limits:

  • Customer A, who is long 25,000 XYZ calls, may at the same time be short 25,000 XYZ calls, since long and short positions in the same class of options (i.e., in calls only or in puts only) are on opposite sides of the market and are not aggregated
  • Customer B, who is long 25,000 XYZ calls, may at the same time be long 25,000 XYZ puts. Rule 4.11 does not require the aggregation of long call and long put (or short call and short put) positions, since they are on opposite sides of the market.
  • Customer C, who is long 20,000 XYZ calls, may not at the same time be short more than 5,000 XYZ puts, since the 25,000 contract limit applies to the aggregate position of long calls and short puts in options covering the same underlying security. Similarly, if Customer C is also short 20,000 XYZ calls, he may not at the same time have a long position of more than 5,000 XYZ puts, since the 25,000 contract limit applies separately to the aggregation of short call and long put positions in options covering the same underlying security.

 

Notifications and restrictions:

 

IB will send notifications to customers regarding the option position limits at the following times:

  • When a client exceeds 85% of the allowed limit IB will send a notification indicating this threshold has been exceeded
  • When a client exceeds 95% of the allowed limit IB will place the account in closing only. This state will be maintained until the account falls below 85% of the allowed limit. New orders placed that would increase the position will be rejected.

 

Notes:

Position limits are set on the long and short side of the market separately (and not netted out).
Traders can use an underlying stock position as a "hedge" if they are over the limit on the long or short side (index options are reviewed on a case by case basis for purposes of determining which securities constitute a hedge).
Position information is aggregated across related accounts and accounts under common control.

 

Definition of related accounts:

IB considers related accounts to be any account in which an individual may be viewed as having influence over trading decisions. This includes, but is not limited to, aggregating an advisor sub-account with the advisor's account (and accounts under common control), joint accounts with individual accounts for the joint parties and organization accounts (where an individual is listed as an officer or trader) with other accounts for that individual.

 

Position limit exceptions:

Regulations permit clients to exceed a position limit if the positions under common control are hedged positions as specified by the relevant exchange. In general the hedges permitted by the US regulators that are recognized in the IB system include outright stock position hedges, conversions, reverse conversions and box spreads. Currently collar and reverse collar strategies are not supported hedges in the IB system. For more detail about the permissible hedge exemptions refer to the rules of the self regulatory organization for the relevant product.

OCC posts position limits defined by the option exchanges.   They can be found here.
http://www.optionsclearing.com/webapps/position-limits

Do liquidation trades executed by IBKR count as day trades?

Overview: 

Yes, if a position that is opened is subsequently closed in the same trading session (day), it is defined as a Pattern Day Trade. If an IBKR liquidation results in the closing of a position that was opened in that same session/day, it would be counted towards the Pattern Day Trade total. This could also result in the account being flagged as a Pattern Day Trade account.

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