Considerazioni sull'esercizio di opzioni call prima della scadenza

INTRODUZIONE

Generalmente esercitare opzioni call su titoli azionari prima della loro scadenza non apporta alcun vantaggio, in quanto:

  • comporta la perdita del valore temporale residuo delle opzioni;
  • richiede un ulteriore impegno di capitale per il pagamento e/o finanziamento della consegna dei titoli;
  • può esporre il titolare delle opzioni a rischi di perdita superiori sui titoli rispetto al premio delle opzioni.

Tuttavia, i titolari di conti in grado di far fronte a un aumento di capitale e/o prestito e a un rischio di mercato potenzialmente maggiore possono trarre vantaggio dall'esercizio anticipato di opzioni call di tipo americano nel tentativo di ottenere un futuro dividendo.

PREMESSA

Premettendo che i titolari di opzioni call non sono legittimati al pagamento dei dividendi sui titoli sottostanti, in quanto essi spettano solo ai titolari delle azioni a partire dalla data di registrazione del dividendo, il prezzo dei titoli, a parità di condizioni, dovrebbe diminuire di un importo pari al valore del dividendo alla data di stacco cedola. Secondo la teoria dei prezzi delle opzioni, il prezzo corrente di acquisto dovrebbe corrispondere al valore scontato del potenziale dividendo pagato durante la sua durata, ciò nonostante il prezzo potrebbe crollare alla data di stacco cedola.  Nella seguente casistica tale scenario risulta altamente possibile ed è preferibile optare per un esercizio anticipato:

1. l'opzione è profondamente in the money e con un delta pari a 100;

2. l'opzione ha valore temporale scarso o nullo;

3. il dividendo è relativamente alto e la data di stacco cedola precede quella di scadenza dell'opzione. 

ESEMPI

Per illustrare l'impatto di questa casistica sulla decisione di esercizio anticipato, si consideri un conto che detiene un saldo di liquidità pari a 9,000 USD e una posizione call lunga di un'ipotetica azione "ABC" con un prezzo di esercizio di 90.00 USD e una durata residua di 10 giorni. ABC, che attualmente viene scambiata a 100.00 USD, dichiara un dividendo pari a 2.00 USD per titolo nella giornata precedente alla data di stacco cedola. Si presuma, inoltre, che il prezzo dell'opzione e quello del titolo azionario si comportino in modo analogo e subiscano un calo pari al valore del dividendo alla data di stacco cedola.

A questo punto si riesamini la decisione di esercizio nell'intento di mantenere il delta della posizione 100 e massimizzare il capitale complessivo secondo due scenari relativi ai prezzi delle opzioni: il primo, in cui l'opzione viene scambiata in condizione di parità, e il secondo, in cui viene scambiata oltre la parità.

I SCENARIO: prezzo delle opzioni alla pari: 10.00 USD
In caso di opzioni scambiate alla pari, l'esercizio anticipato permette di mantenere il delta della posizione ed evitare la perdita di valore dell'opzione lunga qualora il titolo venga negoziato ex dividendo. In tal caso, tutti gli incassi vengono impiegati per l'acquisto del titolo al prezzo di esercizio, il premio dell'opzione viene perso e il titolo, al netto del dividendo, viene accreditato sul conto insieme al dividendo maturato.  Lo stesso risultato è possibile vendendo l'opzione prima della data di stacco cedola e acquistando il titolo:

I SCENARIO

Componenti 

del conto

Saldo

iniziale

Esercizio

anticipato

Inattività


Vendita opzioni e

acquisto titoli

Liquidità 9,000 USD 0 USD 9,000 USD 0 USD
Opzione 1,000 USD 0 USD 800 USD 0 USD
Titolo 0 USD 9,800 USD 0 USD 9,800 USD
Dividendo maturato 0 USD 200 USD 0 USD 200 USD
Capitale totale 10,000 USD 10,000 USD 9,800 USD 10,000 USD

 

 

II SCENARIO: prezzo delle opzioni sopra la parità: 11.00 USD
In caso di opzioni scambiate sopra la parità, un esercizio anticipato finalizzato al raggiungimento di uno sconto potrebbe non rivelarsi vantaggioso, per quanto preferibile all'inattività. In tale scenario l'esercizio anticipato comporterebbe una perdita di 100 USD in termini di valore temporale delle opzioni, e l'inattività a una perdita pari a 200 USD di dividendo. In questa circostanza è preferibile vendere l'opzione per sfruttarne il valore temporale e acquistare il tiolo per realizzare il dividendo.

II SCENARIO

Componenti

del conto

Saldo

iniziale

Esercizio

anticipato

Inattività


Vendita opzioni &

acquisto titoli

Liquidità 9,000 USD 0 USD 9,000 USD 100 USD
Opzione 1,100 USD 0 USD 900 USD 0 USD
Titolo 0 USD 9,800 USD 0 USD 9,800 USD
Dividendo maturato 0 USD 200 USD 0 USD 200 USD
Capitale totale 10,100 USD 10,000 USD 9,900 USD 10,100 USD

  

NB: i titolari di conti che detengono una posizione call lunga quale parte dello spread dovrebbero prestare particolare attenzione ai rischi derivanti dal mancato esercizio del segmento lungo, data la possibilità che venga assegnato al segmento corto.  Si prega di notare che l'assegnazione di opzioni call corte determina posizioni corte su titoli azioniari, e, a partire dalla data di registrazione del dividendo, i titolari di tali posizioni sono tenuti al pagamento del dividendo al prestatore dei titoli. Inoltre, la procedura di elaborazione della camera di compensazione relativa alle notifiche di esercizio non accetta l'avviso di esercizio in risposta all'assegnazione.

Si consideri, per esempio, un credit call spread (al ribasso) su SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (SPY) costituito da 100 contratti short al prezzo di esercizio di 146 USD nel marzo 2013 e 100 contratti long al prezzo di esercizio di 147 USD nel marzo 2013.  In data 14 marzo 2013 lo SPY Trust dichiara un dividendo di 0.69372 USD per titolo, pagabile il 30 aprile 2013 agli azionisti registrati alla data del 19 marzo 2013. A seguito dei tre giorni lavorativi necessari al pagamento dei titoli americani, gli investitori dovrebbero acquistare il titolo o esercitare l'opzione call entro il 14 marzo 2013 per poter ottenere un dividendo, in quanto il giorno successvo tale titolo verrà scambiato ex dividendo. 

In data 14 marzo 2013, a un giorno dalla scadenza delle negoziazioni, i due contratti di opzioni sono stati negoziati alla pari, indicando un rischio massimo di 100 USD per contratto o di 10,000 USD sulla posizione di 100 contratti. Tuttavia, il mancato esercizio del contratto lungo, dovuto all'intento di ottenere il dividendo e tutelarsi dalla possibile assegnazione su contratti corti da parte della concorrenza, ha causato un ulteriore rischio pari a 67.372 USD per contratto o 6,737.20 USD sulla posizione equivalente al pagamento dividendo obbligatorio in caso di assegnazione di opzioni call corte.  Come illustrato nella tabella sottostante, qualora il segmento delle opzioni corte non venga assegnato, in data 15 marzo 2013, al momento della definizione del prezzo di liquidazione del contratto finale, il massimo rischio possibile sarebbe pari a 100 USD per contratto.

Data Chiusura SPY Op. call 146 mar '13 Op. call 147 mar '13
14 marzo 2013 156.73 USD 10.73 USD 9.83 USD
15 marzo 2013 155.83 USD   9.73 USD 8.83 USD

Per informazioni relative alle modalità di inoltro di un avviso di esercizio anticipato si prega di visitare il sito web di IB.

 

Il presente articolo è fornito a scopo esclusivamente informativo e non costituisce né una raccomandazione né un consiglio sugli investimenti, e non intende suggerire che l'esercizio anticipato sia vantaggioso e/o appropriato per tutti i clienti e/o investitori. I titolari dei conti sono tenuti a rivolgersi a consulenti fiscali per la verifica di eventuali conseguenze relative all'esercizio anticipato. Sono, inoltre, pregati di prestare particolare attenzione ai potenziali rischi derivanti dalla sostituzione di posizioni lunghe su opzioni con posizioni lunghe su titoli.

Date fondamentali relative ai dividendi azionari

Overview: 

Di seguito vengono illustrate le date fondamentali relative ai dividendi azionari:

1. Data di dichiarazione dei dividendi: la data in cui il Consiglio di amministrazione della società approva il pagamento dei dividendi e stabilisce la Data di pagamento e la Data di registrazione.

2. Data di registrazione: la data in cui vengono individuati gli azionisti legittimati al pagamento del dividendo. Si ha diritto al pagamento del dividendo solo se si è in possesso delle azioni alla chiusura della Data di registrazione.

3. Data di stacco cedola: la data in cui, o a seguito della quale, le azioni vengono negoziate senza il diritto al dividendo. Siccome la maggior parte delle operazioni finanziarie negli Stati Uniti vengono regolate in modo regolare, ovvero, tre giorni lavorativi dopo la transazione, è necessario acquistare le azioni tre giorni lavorativi prima della Data di registrazione per poter essere legittimati al pagamento del dividendo. La Data di stacco cedola precede di due giorni quella di registrazione.

4. Data di pagamento: la data in cui i dividendi dichiarati vengono pagati a tutti gli azionisti in possesso di quote alla Data di registrazione.

Welche Stichtage sind in Bezug auf Dividenden von Bedeutung?

Overview: 

Die folgenden Stichtage sind im Zusammenhang mit Aktiendividenden von Bedeutung:

1. Ankündigungsdatum - Das Datum, an dem die Geschäftsführung eines Unternehmens die Ausschüttung einer Dividende beschließt und das Auszahlungsdatum sowie den Dividendenstichtag (Record Date) festlegt.

2. Dividendenstichtag - Dieses Datum entscheidet darüber, welche Aktieninhaber Anspruch auf den Erhalt der Dividende haben. Sie müssen bei Handelsschluss am Dividendenstichtag Inhaber der Aktie sein, um die Dividende ausgezahlt zu bekommen.

3. Ex-Tag - An oder nach diesem Tag wird die Aktie ohne Anspruch auf Erhalt der Dividende gehandelt. Für die meisten Aktientransaktionen in den USA gilt die übliche Abwicklungsfrist, d. h. drei Geschäftstage nach Abschluss der Transaktion. Daher muss ein Händler die Aktien drei Geschäftstage vor dem Dividendenstichtag kaufen, um Anspruch auf die Dividendenzahlung zu haben. Dementsprechend liegt der Ex-Tag (in den USA) zwei Tage vor dem Dividendenstichtag.

4. Auszahlungstag - Der Tag, an dem die angekündigte Dividende an alle Inhaber von Aktien gemäß Erfassung am Ende des Dividendenstichtags ausgeschüttet wird.

¿Cuales son las fechas claves en relación con los dividendos de acciones?

Overview: 

Las fechas claves en relación con los dividendos de acciones son las siguientes:

1. Fecha de declaración: fecha en la que la junta de directores de la empresa aprueba el pago de dividendos y designa la fecha de pago y la fecha de cierre de registro.

2. Fecha de cierre de registro: la fecha que determina los accionistas con derecho a recibir el pago del dividendo. Debe ser titular de acciones al final del día de la fecha del cierre de registro para recibir el dividendo.

3. Fecha exdividendo: la fecha en la que las acciones se negociarán sin el derecho a recibir el dividendo. Debido a que la mayoría de las operaciones en acciones en Estados Unidos se liquidan de forma regular, es decir tres días hábiles tras la operación, una persona física debe comprar las acciones tres días hábiles antes de la fecha de cierre de registro para cualificarse para el dividendo. La fecha exdividendo es, por lo tanto, dos días hábiles anterior a la fecha de cierre de registro.

4. Fecha de pago: fecha en la que el dividendo declarado se paga a todos los accionistas que tengan acciones en la fecha de cierre de registro.

Wissenswertes zur vorzeitigen Ausübung von Call-Optionen

EINFÜHRUNG

Die Ausübung einer Aktien-Call-Option vor Ende der Laufzeit bietet im Regelfall keine finanziellen Vorteile, denn:

  • es bedeutet, das jeglicher verbleibende Zeitwert der Option verfällt;
  • es erfordert einen höheren Kapitaleinsatz zur Zahlung oder Finanzierung der Bereitstellung der Aktien; und
  • für den Inhaber der Option steigt unter Umständen das Risiko eines Verlustes an den Aktien im Verhältnis zur Optionsprämie.

Dennoch kann es für Depotinhaber, die über die Voraussetzungen verfügen, um erhöhte Kapital- oder Leihanforderungen zu erfüllen und das ggf. erhöhte Verlustrisiko tragen zu können, finanziell von Vorteil sein, die vorzeitige Ausübung einer amerikanischen Call-Option zu beantragen, um von einer bevorstehenden Dividendenausschüttung zu profitieren.

HINTERGRUND

Als Informationshintergrund sei erwähnt, der Inhaber einer Call-Option nicht berechtigt ist, eine Dividende auf die zugrunde liegende Aktie zu beziehen, da der Anspruch auf diese Dividende ausschließlich für den Inhaber der Dividende zum Dividendenstichtag entsteht.  Bei ansonsten gleichen Bedingungen sollte der Kurs der Aktie um den Betrag sinken, der der Höhe der Dividende am Ex-Tag entspricht. Während die Optionspreistheorie davon ausgeht, dass der Call-Kurs den diskontierten Wert der erwarteten Dividendenausschüttungen über die Laufzeit hinweg abbildet, kann dieser jedoch auch am Ex-Tag fallen. Die folgenden Umstände machen den Eintritt dieses Szenarios besonders wahrscheinlich und die vorzeitige Ausübung der Option vorteilhaft:

1. Die Option steht tief im Geld und verfügt über einen Delta-Wert von 100.

2. Die Option verfügt lediglich über einen geringen oder keinen verbleibenden Zeitwert.

3. Der Dividendenbetrag ist relativ hoch und der Ex-Tag liegt vor dem Fälligkeitsdatum der Option. 

BEISPIELE

Um die Auswirkungen dieser Umstände mit Blick auf die Entscheidung über eine vorzeitige Ausübung zu veranschaulichen, sei als Beispiel ein Depot gegeben, in dem sich Long-Cash-Guthaben in Höhe von $9,000  und eine Long-Call-Position auf eine fiktive Aktie „ABC“ mit einem Ausübungskurs von $90.00 und einer verbleibenden Laufzeit von 10 Tagen befindet. ABC wird aktuell zu einem Kurs von $100.00 gehandelt und es wurde eine Dividendenausschüttung in Höhe von $2.00 pro Aktie mit dem morgigen Tag als Ex-Tag angekündigt. Weiterhin sei angenommen, dass der Kurs der Option und der Aktienkurs sich ähnlich verhalten und am Ex-Tag um den Dividendenbetrag fallen.

Unter diesen Voraussetzungen werden wir die Ausübungsentscheidung unter der Absicht betrachten, die 100-Aktien-Delta-Position beizubehalten und das Gesamteigenkapital zu maximieren, indem wir zwei Optionskursannahmen verwenden: Im ersten Fall wird die Option bei Parität verkauft und im zweiten Fall über Parität.

SZENARIO 1: Optionskurs bei Parität - $10.00
Wird eine Option bei Parität gehandelt, ermöglicht die vorzeitige Ausübung die Erhaltung des Delta der Position und umgeht den Wertverlust in der Long-Option, wenn die Aktie ex-Dividende gehandelt wird. In diesem Fall werden die Barerträge vollständig eingesetzt, um die Aktien bei Ausübung zu kaufen. Die Optionsprämie verfällt und die Aktie (abzüglich des Dividendenbetrags) und die zahlbare Dividende werden dem Depot gutgeschrieben. Das gleiche Endergebnis kann durch den Verkauf der Option vor dem Ex-Tag und den Kauf der Aktie erzielt werden:

SZENARIO 1

Bestandteile des

Depots

Kontostand

zu Beginn 

Vorzeitige

Ausübung

Keine

Maßnahme

Verkauf der Option &

Kauf der Aktie

Barmittel $9,000 $0 $9,000 $0
Optionen $1,000 $0 $800 $0
Aktien $0 $9,800 $0 $9,800
Zahlbare Dividende $0 $200 $0 $200
Gesamteigenkapital $10,000 $10,000 $9,800 $10,000

 

 

SZENARIO 2: Optionskurs über Parität - $11.00
Wird eine Option oberhalb der Paritätsgrenze gehandelt, ist die vorzeitige Ausübung der Option zur Ausnutzung des Abschlags zwar besser als keinerlei Maßnahmen zu ergreifen, aber nicht unbedingt finanziell vorteilhaft. In diesem Szenario würde die vorzeitige Ausübung zu einem Verlust von $100 Optionszeitwert führen, während Untätigkeit einen Verlust der $200 Dividendenwert bedeuten würde. Die beste Vorgehensweise wäre hier der Verkauf der Option zur Gewinnung des Zeitwerts und der Kauf der Aktie, um die Dividende zu erhalten.

SZENARIO 2

Bestandteile des

Depots

Kontostand

zu Beginn

Vorzeitige

Ausübung

Keine

Maßnahme

Verkauf der Option &

Kauf der Aktie

Barmittel $9,000 $0 $9,000 $100
Optionen $1,100 $0 $900 $0
Aktien $0 $9,800 $0 $9,800
Zahlbare Dividende $0 $200 $0 $200
Gesamteigenkapital $10,100 $10,000 $9,900 $10,100

  

HINWEIS: Depotinhaber, die eine Long-Call-Position als Bestandteil eines Spreads halten, sollten insbesondere die Risiken einer Nicht-Ausübung der Long-Seite des Spreads in Anbetracht der Wahrscheinlichkeit einer Zuteilung für die Short-Seite des Spreads bedenken. Bitte beachten Sie, dass die Zuteilung eines Short-Calls zu einer Short-Position für die entsprechende Aktie führt und Inhaber von Short-Positionen einer Aktie zum Dividendenstichtag verpflichtet sind, die Dividende an den Verleiher der Aktien zu zahlen. Darüber hinaus erlaubt der Bearbeitungsprozess für Ausübungsanträge der Clearingstelle keine Einreichung von Ausübungsanträgen als Reaktion auf eine Zuteilung.

Nehmen wir als Beispiel einen Credit-Call-(Baisse-)Spread für den SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (SPY), bestehend aus 100 Short-Kontrakten für März '13 $146 und 100 Long-Kontrakten für März '13 $147. Am 14. März 2013 kündigte der SPY Trust eine Dividende von $0.69372 pro Aktie mit Ausschüttung am 30. April 2013 für registrierte Aktieninhaber zum Stand vom 19. März 2013 als Stichtag an. Angesichts der Abwicklungsfrist von 3 Geschäftstagen für US-Aktien hätte der Kauf der Aktien oder die Ausübung der Call-Option spätestens am  14. März 2013 erfolgen müssen, um Anspruch auf die Dividende zu erhalten, da die Aktie ab dem folgenden Tag ex-Dividende gehandelt wurde. 

Am 14. März 2013, mit einem verbleibenden Handelstag bis zur Fälligkeit, wurden die beiden Optionskontrakte bei Parität gehandelt, was einem maximalen Risiko von 100 US-Dollar pro Kontrakt bzw. 10,000 US-Dollar für die Position von 100 Kontrakten entspricht. Jedoch wurde die Gelegenheit versäumt, die Long-Kontrakte auszuüben um die Dividende zu erhalten und sich für den wahrscheinlichen Fall einer Zuteilung für die Short-Kontrakte aufgrund anderer nach der Dividende strebender Anleger abzusichern. In der Folge entstand ein zusätzliches Risiko von $67.372 pro Kontrakt bzw. $6,737.20 für die Gesamtposition, was der Dividendenzahlungsverpflichtung im Falle einer Zuteilung aller Short-Calls entspricht. Wie sich der nachstehenden Tabelle entnehmen lässt, wäre das maximale Risiko bei Ermittlung der endgültigen Abwicklungskurse am 15. März 2013 bei $100 pro Kontrakt verblieben, wenn für die Short-Optionsseite keine Zuteilung erfolgt wäre.

Datum SPY Schlusskurs März '13 $146 Call März '13 $147 Call
14. März 2013 $156.73 $10.73 $9.83
15. März 2013 $155.83   $9.73 $8.83

Weitere Informationen dazu, wie Sie einen Antrag auf vorzeitige Ausübung einreichen, erhalten Sie auf der IB-Website.

 

Der vorstehende Artikel wird ausschließlich zu Informationszwecken bereitgestellt. Er stellt keine Empfehlung oder Handelsberatung dar und vertritt nicht die Einschätzung, dass die vorzeitige Ausübung von Optionen für alle Kunden und Transaktionen gewinnbringend oder angemessen ist. Depotinhaber sollten einen Steuerexperten konsultieren, um zu ermitteln, ob und in welcher Form eine vorzeitige Ausübung zu steuerlichen Konsequenzen führen kann, und sollten besonderes Augenmerk auf mögliche Risiken beim Ersatz einer Long-Optionsposition durch eine Long-Aktienposition richten.

Consideraciones para ejercitar opciones call antes del vencimiento

INTRODUCCIÓN

El ejercicio de una opción call antes del vencimiento no proporciona, normalmente, un beneficio económico, ya que:

  • Tiene como resultado la pérdida de cualquier valor temporal de la opción que quede;
  • Requiere una mayor inversión de capital para el pago o financiación de la entrega de acciones; y
  • Puede exponer al titular de la opción a un mayor riesgo de pérdida sobre la acción en relación con la prima de la opción.

Aún así, para titulares de cuenta que tengan la capacidad de cumplir los requisitos de préstamo o de aumento de capital y de hacer frente a un riesgo potencialmente mayor de caída del mercado, puede ser económicamente beneficioso solicitar un ejercicio temprano de una opción call de tipo americano para capturar un próximo dividendo.

TRASFONDO

Como trasfondo, el titular de una opción call no tiene derecho a recibir un dividendo de la acción subyacente ya que este dividendo solo se devenga para los titulares de acciones en la fecha de cierre de registro de su dividendo. En igual de condiciones, el precio de la acción debería decaer en una cantidad igual al dividendo en la fecha ExDividendo. Aunque la teoría del precio de opciones sugiere que el precio call reflejará el valor descontado de los dividendos esperados pagados durante su duración, es posible que decline en la fecha exdividendo.  Las condiciones que convierten este escenario en más probable y que hacen más favorable la decisión de un ejercicio temprano son las siguientes:

1. La opción está muy en dinero y tiene una delta de 100;

2. La opción no tiene valor temporal o tiene muy poco;

3. El dividendo es relativamente elevado y su fecha ex precede a la fecha de vencimiento de la opción.

EJEMPLOS

Para ilustrar el impacto de estas condiciones sobre una decisión de ejercicio temprano, consideremos una cuenta que mantenga un saldo en efectivo largo de 9,000 USD y una posición de call larga en un valor hipotético “ABC”, con un precio de ejecución de 90.00 USD y un tiempo hasta vencimiento de 10 días. ABC, que actualmente opera a 100.00 USD, ha declarado un dividendo de 2.00 USD por acción, siendo mañana la fecha exdividendo. También asumiremos que el precio de opción y el precio de acción se comportan de forma similar y declinan según la cantidad de dividendo en la fecha ex.

Aquí, revisaremos la decisión de ejercicio con la intención de mantener la posición de delta de 100 y maximizar la liquidez total mediante dos asunciones de precio de opción; una en la que la opción se vende a la par y otra sobre la par.

ESCENARIO 1: precio de opción a la par - 10.00 USD
En el caso de una opción que opere a la par, el ejercicio temprano servirá para mantener la delta de la posición y evitar la pérdida de valor en la opción larga cuando la acción opere exdividendo. Aquí, el producto en efectivo se aplica en su totalidad a la compra de la acción al precio de ejercicio, la prima de la opción se pierde y la acción, neta de dividendo, y el dividendo pendiente de pago se acreditan en la cuenta.  Esto también puede realizarse con el mismo resultado si se vende la opción antes de la fecha exdividendo y se compra la acción:

ESCENARIO 1

Componentes de

cuenta

Saldo

inicial

Ejercicio

temprano

No

Actuar

Vender opción y

comprar acción

Efectivo $9,000 $0 $9,000 $0
Opción $1,000 $0 $800 $0
Acción $0 $9,800 $0 $9,800
Dividendo pendiente $0 $200 $0 $200
Liquidez total $10,000 $10,000 $9,800 $10,000

 

 

ESCENARIO 2: precio de opción sobre la par - 11.00 USD
En el caso de una opción opere sobre la par, el ejercicio temprano para capturar el descuento, aunque preferible a la inacción, puede no ser beneficioso económicamente. En este escenario, el ejercicio temprano tendría como resultado una pérdida de 100 USD en valor temporal de la acción y la inacción tendría una pérdida igual al dividendo de 200 USD. Aquí, la acción preferible habría sido vender la opción para capturar el valor temporal y comprar la acción, realizando, por tanto, el dividendo.

ESCENARIO 2

Componentes de

cuenta

Saldo

inicial

Ejercicio

temprano

No

Actuar

Vender opción y

comprar acción

Efectivo $9,000 $0 $9,000 $100
Opción $1,100 $0 $900 $0
Acción $0 $9,800 $0 $9,800
Dividendo pendiente de pago $0 $200 $0 $200
Liquidez total $10,100 $10,000 $9,900 $10,100

  

NOTA: los titulares de cuenta que mantengan una posición call larga como parte de un diferencial deberían prestar particular atención al riesgo de no ejercitar el tramo largo dada la posibilidad de que se asigne en el tramo corto. Hay que tener en cuenta que la asignación de una opción call corta tiene como resultado una posición corta en acciones y los titulares de posiciones cortas en acciones en la fecha de registro del dividendo están obligados a pagar el dividendo al prestador de las acciones. Además, el ciclo de procesamiento de la cámara de contratación para notificaciones de ejercicio no acepta entregas de notificaciones de ejercicio como respuesta a la asignación.

Como ejemplo, consideremos un diferencial de opción call de crédito (bajista) para SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (SPY) que consista en 100 contratos cortos al precio de ejercicio de 146 USD en marzo de 2013 y 100 contratos largos al precio de ejercicio de 147 USD en marzo de 2013.  El 14 de marzo de 2013, el SPY Trust declaró un dividendo de 0.69372 USD por acción, pagadero el 30 de abril de 2013 a los accionistas registrados a fecha del 19 de marzo de 2013. Dado el periodo de tres días hábiles para la liquidación para acciones estadounidenses, habría que haber comprado la acción el 14 de marzo de 2013 a más tardar, para recibir el dividendo, ya que al día siguiente la acción empezó a operar exdividendo.

El 14 de marzo de 2013, con un día de negociación previo al vencimiento, los dos contratos de opciones operaron a la par,  lo que sugiere el riesgo máximo de 100 USD por contrato o 10,000 USD en la posición de100 contratos. Sin embargo, el no ejercitar el contrato largo para capturar el dividendo y protegerse frente a la probable asignación de los contratos cortos por parte de aquellos que buscaran el dividendo creó un riesgo adicional de 67.372 USD por contrato o 6,737.20 USD en la posición que represente la obligación de dividendo una vez asignadas todas las call cortas.  Como se ve en la tabla siguiente, si el tramo de la opción corta no se hubiera asignado, el riesgo máximo cuando se determinaron los precios de liquidación del contrato final el 15 de marzo de 2013 habría permanecido en 100 USD por contrato.

Fecha Cierre SPY Marzo '13, $146 Call Marzo '13, $147 Call
14 de marzo, 2013 $156.73 $10.73 $9.83
15 de marzo, 2013 $155.83   $9.73 $8.83

Para más información sobre cómo enviar una notificación de ejercicio temprano, por favor consulte la página web de IB.

 

El artículo anterior se proporciona solo con propósitos informativos, y no se considera una recomendación, consejos operativos ni constituye una conclusión de que el ejercicio temprano tendrá éxito o será adecuado para todos los cliente so todas las operaciones. Los titulares de cuenta deberían consultar con un especialista fiscal para determinar las consecuencias fiscales, si las hubiere, de un ejercicio temprano y deberían prestar particular atención a los riesgosp otenciales de sustituir una posición en opciones larga por una posición en acciones corta.

Dividend Tax Withholding on Depository Receipts

In the event an account holds a dividend paying depository receipt, at the time of the dividend payment taxes will be withheld. In several jurisdictions, IB is unable to efficiently comply in an electronic, straight-through manner with the required beneficial owner disclosure requirements. As such, dividends on depository receipts where full beneficial owner disclosure is required in order to receive beneficial tax treatment will be withheld at the maximum tax rate applicable.

Shareholders will not be eligible for reduced tax treatment on the allocation of cash through IB. All shareholders should consult their tax advisor for information on how to obtain a tax refund or tax credit for such activity.


Considerations for Exercising Call Options Prior to Expiration

INTRODUCTION

Exercising an equity call option prior to expiration ordinarily provides no economic benefit as:

  • It results in a forfeiture of any remaining option time value;
  • Requires a greater commitment of capital for the payment or financing of the stock delivery; and
  • May expose the option holder to greater risk of loss on the stock relative to the option premium.

Nonetheless, for account holders who have the capacity to meet an increased capital or borrowing requirement and potentially greater downside market risk, it can be economically beneficial to request early exercise of an American Style call option in order to capture an upcoming dividend.

BACKGROUND

As background, the owner of a call option is not entitled to receive a dividend on the underlying stock as this dividend only accrues to the holders of stock as of its dividend Record Date. All other things being equal, the price of the stock should decline by an amount equal to the dividend on the Ex-Dividend date. While option pricing theory suggests that the call price will reflect the discounted value of expected dividends paid throughout its duration, it may decline as well on the Ex-Dividend date.  The conditions which make this scenario most likely and the early exercise decision favorable are as follows:

1. The option is deep-in-the-money and has a delta of 100;

2. The option has little or no time value;

3. The dividend is relatively high and its Ex-Date precedes the option expiration date. 

EXAMPLES

To illustrate the impact of these conditions upon the early exercise decision, consider an account maintaining a long cash balance of $9,000 and a long call position in hypothetical stock “ABC” having a strike price of $90.00 and time to expiration of 10 days. ABC, currently trading at $100.00, has declared a dividend of $2.00 per share with tomorrow being the Ex-Dividend date. Also assume that the option price and stock price behave similarly and decline by the dividend amount on the Ex-Date.

Here, we will review the exercise decision with the intent of maintaining the 100 share delta position and maximizing total equity using two option price assumptions, one in which the option is selling at parity and another above parity.

SCENARIO 1: Option Price At Parity - $10.00
In the case of an option trading at parity, early exercise will serve to maintain the position delta and avoid the loss of value in long option when the stock trades Ex-Dividend. preserve equity. Here the cash proceeds are applied in their entirety to buy the stock at the strike, the option premium is forfeited and the stock, net of dividend, and the dividend receivable are credited to the account.  This can also be accomplished with the same end result by selling the option prior to the Ex-Dividend date and purchasing the stock:

SCENARIO 1

Account

Components

Beginning

Balance

Early

Exercise

No

Action

Sell Option &

Buy Stock

Cash $9,000 $0 $9,000 $0
Option $1,000 $0 $800 $0
Stock $0 $9,800 $0 $9,800
Dividend Receivable $0 $200 $0 $200
Total Equity $10,000 $10,000 $9,800 $10,000

 

 

SCENARIO 2: Option Price Above Parity - $11.00
In the case of an option trading above parity, early exercise to capture the discount, while preferable to inaction, may not be economically beneficial. In this scenario, early exercise would result in a loss of $100 in option time value and inaction a loss equal to the $200 dividend. Here, the preferable action would be to sell the option to capture the time value and buy the stock, thereby realizing the dividend.

SCENARIO 2

Account

Components

Beginning

Balance

Early

Exercise

No

Action

Sell Option &

Buy Stock

Cash $9,000 $0 $9,000 $100
Option $1,100 $0 $900 $0
Stock $0 $9,800 $0 $9,800
Dividend Receivable $0 $200 $0 $200
Total Equity $10,100 $10,000 $9,900 $10,100

  

NOTE: Account holders holding a long call position as part of a spread should pay particular attention to the risks of not exercising the long leg given the likelihood of being assigned on the short leg.  Note that the assignment of a short call results in a short stock position and holders of short stock positions as of a dividend Record Date are obligated to pay the dividend to the lender of the shares. In addition, the clearinghouse processing cycle for exercise notices does not accommodate submission of exercise notices in response to assignment.

As example, consider a credit call (bear) spread on the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (SPY) consisting of 100 short contracts in the March '13 $146 strike and 100 long contracts in the March '13 $147 strike.  On 3/14/13, with the SPY Trust declared a dividend of $0.69372 per share, payable 4/30/13 to shareholders of record as of 3/19/13. Given the 3 business day settlement time frame for U.S. stocks, one would have had to buy the stock or exercise the call no later than 3/14/13 in order receive the dividend, as the next day the stock began trading Ex-Dividend. 

On 3/14/13, with one trading day left prior to expiration, the two option contracts traded at parity, suggesting maximum risk of $100 per contract or $10,000 on the 100 contract position. However, the failure to exercise the long contract in order to capture the dividend and protect against the likely assignment on the short contracts by others seeking the dividend created an additional risk of $67.372 per contract or $6,737.20 on the position representing the dividend obligation were all short calls assigned.  As reflected on the table below, had the short option leg not been assigned, the maximum risk when the final contract settlement prices were determined on 3/15/13 would have remained at $100 per contract.

Date SPY Close March '13 $146 Call March '13 $147 Call
March 14, 2013 $156.73 $10.73 $9.83
March 15, 2013 $155.83   $9.73 $8.83

For information regarding how to submit an early exercise notice please see the IB website.

 

The above article is provided for information purposes only as is not intended as a recommendation, trading advice nor does it constitute a conclusion that early exercise will be successful or appropriate for all customers or trades. Account holders should consult with a tax specialist to determine what, if any, tax consequences may result from early exercise and should pay particular attention to the potential risks of substituting a long option position with a long stock position.

SPY - Dividend Recognition

Unlike the case of a stock, in which a dividend is taxable in the year in which it is paid, the SPDR S&P 500 ETF Trust (Symbol: SPY) represents itself as a Regulated Investment Company and its dividend is deemed taxable in the year in which the record date is determined.  As such, SPY dividends declared in either October, November or December and payable to shareholders of record on a specified date in one of those months will be considered taxable income income in that year despite the fact that such dividend will generally be paid in January of the following year.

 

Circular 230 Notice: These statements are provided for information purposes only, are not intended to constitute tax advice which may be relied upon to avoid penalties under any federal, state, local or other tax statutes or regulations, and do not resolve any tax issues in your favor.

Overview of IB issued Share CFDs

The following article is intended to provide a general introduction to share-based Contracts for Differences (CFDs) issued by IB.

For Information on IB Index CFDs please see IB Index CFDs - Facts and Q&A.

Topics covered are as follows:

I.    CFD Definition
II.   Comparison Between CFDs and Underlying Shares
III.  Cost and Margin Considerations
IV.  Worked Example
V.   CFD Resources
VI.  Frequently Asked Questions

 

 

I.  Share  CFD Definition

IB CFDs are OTC contracts which deliver the return of the underlying stock, including dividends and corporate actions (read more about CFD corporate actions).

Said differently, it is an agreement between the buyer (you) and IB to exchange the difference in the current value of a share, and its value at a future time. If you hold a long position and the difference is positive, IB pays you. If it is negative, you pay IB. The CFD contract is marked to market daily with gains/losses settled into your account in cash in the form of variation margin.

IB Share CFDs are traded through your margin account, and you can therefore enter long as well as short leveraged positions. The price of the CFD is the exchange-quoted price of the underlying share. In fact, IB CFD quotes are identical to the Smart-routed quotes for shares that you can observe in the Trader Work Station and IB offers Direct Market Access (DMA). Similar to shares, your non-marketable (i.e., limit) orders have the underlying hedge directly represented on the deep book of those exchanges at which it trades.  This also means that you can place orders to buy the CFD at the underlying bid and sell at the offer.

To compare IB’s transparent CFD model to others available in the market please see our Overview of CFD Market Models.

IB currently offers approximately 3800 Share CFDs covering the principal markets in the US, Europe and Asia.  The constituents of the major indexes listed below are currently available as IB Share CFDs. In many countries IB also offers trading in liquid small cap shares. These are shares with free float adjusted market capitalization of at least USD 250 million and median daily trading value of at least USD 300 thousand.  Please see CFD Product Listings for more detail. More countries will be added in the near future.

United States S&P 500, DJA, Nasdaq 100, S&P 400 (Mid Cap), Non-Index Mid Cap
United Kingdom FTSE 350 + Liquid Small Cap (incl. IOB)
Germany Dax, MDax, TecDax + Liquid Small Cap
Switzerland Swiss portion of STOXX Europe 600 (48 shares)
France CAC Large Cap, CAC Mid Cap + Liquid Small Cap
Netherlands AEX, AMS Mid Cap + Liquid Small Cap
Belgium BEL 20, BEL Mid Cap + Liquid Small Cap
Spain IBEX 35
Portugal PSI 20
Sweden OMX Stockholm 30
Finland OMX Helsinki 25
Denmark OMX Copenhagen 30
Norway OBX
Czech PX
Japan Nikkei 225
Hong Kong HSI
Australia ASX 200
Singapore* STI

 *not available to Singapore residents

II.   Comparison Between CFDs and Underlying Shares

Depending on your trading objectives and trading style, CFDs offer a number of advantages compared to stocks, but also some disadvantages:
 
BENEFITS of IB CFDs
DRAWBACKS of IB CFDs
No stamp duty or financial transaction tax (UK, France, Belgium)
No ownership rights
Generally lower commission and margin rates than shares
Complex corporate actions may not always be exactly replicable
Tax treaty rates for dividends without need for reclaim
Taxation of gains may differ from shares (please consult your tax advisor)
Exemption from day trading rules
 

III.  Cost and Margin Considerations

IB CFDs can be an even more efficient way to trade the European stock markets than IB’s highly competitive stock offering.

Firstly, IB CFDs have low commissions compared to stocks, and the same low financing spreads:

 EUROPE
 
CFD
STOCK
Commission
GBP
0.05%
GBP 6.00 + 0.05%*
EUR
0.05%
0.10%
Financing**
Benchmark +/-
1.50%
1.50%

*per order + 0.05% of excess over GBP 50,000
**CFD financing on total position value, stock financing on borrowed amount

When you trade more, CFD commissions become even lower, as low as 0.02%. Financing rates are reduced for larger positions, to as low as 0.5%.  Please see CFD Commissions and CFD Financing Rates for more details.

Secondly, CFDs have lower margin requirements than stocks. This is because for CFDs we can apply a risk based margin rather than the regulatory formulas we must apply to stocks:

 
CFD
STOCK
 
All
Standard
Portfolio Margin
Margin Requirement*
10%
25% - 50%
15%

*Typical margin for blue-chips. Standard 25% intraday maintenance margin, 50% overnight.  Portfolio Margin shown is maintenance margin (incl. overnight). More volatile issues are subject to higher requirements

Please refer to CFD Margin Requirements for more detail.


IV.  Worked Example

Let’s look at an example. Unilever’s Amsterdam listing has returned 3.2% in the past month (20 trading days to May 14th, 2012) and you believe it will continue to perform well. You want to build a EUR 200,000 exposure and hold it for 5 days. You do 10 trades to build up and 10 trades to unwind. Your direct costs would be as follows:

 
CFD
STOCK
EUR 200,000 Position
 
Standard
Portfolio Margin
Margin Requirement
20,000
100,000
30,000
Commission (round trip)
200.00
400.00
400.00
Interest Expense
41.96
23.35
36.44
Total Direct Cost
241.96
423.55
436.44
Difference
 
75%
80%

Note: Interest expense for CFDs is calculated on the entire contract position, for shares interest is calculated on the borrowed amount. The applicable rates are the same for both shares and CFDs.

 

But let’s assume you only have EUR 20,000 available to fund the margin. If Royal Dutch Shell continues to perform as it has in the past month, your potential profit would compare as follows:  

OPPORTUNITY COST
CFD
STOCK
Available Margin
20,000
20,000
20,000
Total Invested
200,000
40,000
133,333
Return*
1,576.27
312.25
1,050.84
Difference
 
 -80%
 -33%

*past month's (to May 14th, 2012) average daily return over 5 days

 

Please keep in mind that leverage works both ways, and you can potentially lose more with CFDs than with higher margin stocks, including more than your initial investment.

 


V.   CFD Resources

Below are some useful links with more detailed information on IB’s CFD offering:

CFD Product Listings

CFD Commissions

CFD Financing Rates

CFD Margin Requirements

CFD Corporate Actions

CFD Trading Access

The following video tutorials are also available:

How to Place a CFD Trade on the Trader Workstation

How to Request Trading Permissions for IB CFDs


VI.  Frequently Asked Questions

What Stocks are available as CFDs?

Large and Mid-Cap stocks in the US, Western Europe, Nordic and Japan.  Liquid Small Cap stocks are also available in many markets. Please see CFD Product Listings for more detail. More countries will be added in the near future.

 

Do you have CFDs on Stock Indices?

Yes. Please see IB Index CFDs - Facts and Q&A.

 

How do you determine your Share CFD quotes?

IB CFD quotes are identical to the Smart routed quotes for the underlying share. IB does not widen the spread or hold positions against you. To learn more please go to Overview of CFD Market Models.

 

Can I see my limit orders reflected on the exchange?

Yes. IB offers Direct market Access (DMA) whereby your non-marketable (i.e., limit) orders have the underlying hedge directly represented on the deep book of those exchanges at which it trades. This also means that you can place orders to buy the CFD at the underlying bid and sell at the offer.

 

How do you determine margins for Share CFDs?

IB establishes risk-based margin requirements based on the historical volatility of each underlying share. The minimum margin is 10%. Most IB CFDs are margined at this rate, making CFDs more margin-efficient than trading the underlying share in most cases.  There are however no portfolio off-sets between individual CFD positions or between CFDs and exposures to the underlying share. Very large positions may be subject to additional margin. Please refer to CFD Margin Requirements for more detail.

 

Are short Share CFDs subject to forced buy-in?

Yes. In the event the underlying stock becomes difficult or impossible to borrow, the holder of the short CFD position will become subject to buy-in.

 

How do you handle dividends and corporate actions?

IB will generally reflect the economic effect of the corporate action for CFD holders as if they had been holding the underlying security*. Dividends are reflected as cash adjustments, while other actions may be reflected through either cash or position adjustments, or both. For example, where the corporate action results in a change of the number of shares (e.g. stock-split, reverse stock split), the number of CFDs will be adjusted accordingly. Where the action results in a new entity with listed shares, and IB decides to offer these as CFDs, then new long or short positions will be created in the appropriate amount. For an overview please CFD Corporate Actions.

*Please note that in some cases it may not be possible to accurately adjust the CFD for a complex corporate action such as some mergers. In these cases IB may terminate the CFD prior to the ex-date.

 

Can anyone trade IB CFDs?

All clients can trade IB CFDs, except residents of the USA, Canada, Hong Kong and Australia. Singapore residents can trade IB CFDs except those based on shares listed in Singapore. There are no exemptions based on investor type to the residency based exclusions. More details are available in CFD Trading Access.

 

What do I need to do to start trading CFDs with IB?

You need to set up trading permission for CFDs in Account Management, and agree to the relevant trading disclosures. IB will then set up a new account segment (identified with your existing account number plus the suffix “F”). Once the set-up is confirmed you can begin to trade. You do not need to fund the F-account separately, funds will be automatically transferred to meet CFD margin requirements from your main account. For detailed instructions please see CFD Trading Access and How to Request Trading Permissions for IB CFDs (video).

 

Are there any market data requirements?

The market data for IB Share CFDs is the market data for the underlying shares. It is therefore necessary to have market data permissions for the relevant exchanges. If you already have set up market data permissions for an exchange for trading the shares, you do not need to do anything. If you want to trade CFDs on an exchange for which you do not currently have market data permissions, you can set up the permissions in the same way as you would if you planned to trade the underlying shares.

 

How are my CFD trades and positions reflected in my statements?

Your CFD positions are held in a separate account segment identified by your primary account number with the suffix “F”. You can choose to view Activity Statements for the F-segment either separately or consolidated with your main account. You can make the choice in the statement window in Account Management.

 

Can I transfer in CFD positions from another broker?

IB will be glad to facilitate the transfer of CFD positions, subject to the agreement of the other broker. As the transfer of CFD positions is more complex than is the case for share positions, we generally require the position to be at least the equivalent of USD 100,000.

 

Are charts available for Share CFDs?

Yes.

 What account protections apply when trading CFDs with IB?

CFDs are contracts with IB UK as your counterparty, and are not traded on a regulated exchange and are not cleared on a central clearinghouse. Since IB UK is the counterparty to your CFD trades, you are exposed to the financial and business risks, including credit risk, associated with dealing with IB UK. Please note however that all client funds are always fully  segregated, including for institutional clients. IB UK is a participant in the UK Financial Services Compensation Scheme ("FSCS"). IB UK is not a member of the U.S. Securities Investor Protection Corporation (“SIPC”).Please refer to the IB UK CFD Risk Disclosure for further detail on risks associated with trading CFDs.

 

In what type of IB accounts can I trade CFDs e.g., Individual, Friends and Family, Institutional, etc.? 

All margin accounts are eligible for CFD trading. Cash or SIPP accounts are not.

 

What are the maximum a positions I can have in a specific CFD?

There is no pre-set limit. Bear in mind however that very large positions may be subject to increased margin requirements. Please refer to CFD Margin Requirements for more detail.

 

Can I trade CFDs over the phone?

No. In exceptional cases we may agree to process closing orders over the phone, but never opening orders.

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