Monitoraggio Commissione di esposizione mediante Finestra conto

La Finestra conto fornisce informazioni generali che permettono il monitoraggio del proprio conto in tempo reale. Tali informazioni comprendono i saldi principali quali, per esempio, l'ammontare del capitale proprio e della liquidità, la composizione del portafoglio e i saldi di margine per la verifica della conformità ai requisiti e del potere d'acquisto disponibile.  Da questa schermata si ottengono anche informazioni relative all'ultima commissione di esposizione addebitata e una stima della commissione successiva sulla base delle posizioni esistenti.

È possibile aprire la Finestra conto mediante: 
• la postazione TWS classica, cliccando sull'icona Conto o selezionando Finestra conto dalla voce Conto del menu (Figura 1)
 

Figura 1

 

• la postazione TWS Mosaic, cliccando sulla voce Conto del menu e poi selezionando Finestra conto (Figura 2)

Figura 2

 

Dopo l'apertura della schermata è necessario scorrere verso il basso fino alla voce Requisiti di margine e poi cliccare sul segno + nell'angolo in alto a destra per espandere la sezione.  Le commissioni di esposizione, denominate rispettivamente "ultima" e "prossima attesa", sono ivi dettagliate per ogni categoria di prodotto cui si applicano (es. azioni, petrolio).  Si prega di notare che il saldo indicato alla voce "ultima" rappresenta la commissione aggiornata all'ultima data in cui è stata addebitata (si ricorda che le commissioni sono computerizzate in base alle posizioni in essere alla data di chiusura e addebitate di lì a breve).  Il saldo "prossimo atteso" rappresenta la commissione attesa alla data di chiusura in essere sulla base dell'attività della posizione rispetto al calcolo precedente (Figura 3).

Figura 3

 

In caso di sezione nascosta è possibile modificare la visualizzazione predefinita facendo un segno di spunta nella casellina a fianco di un elemento affinché tale elemento sia sempre visualizzato.

 

Si veda l'articolo KB2275 per informazioni sull'utilizzo di Risk Navigator relative alla gestione e alla stima della Commissione di esposizione e il KB2276 per verificare la Commissione di esposizione attraverso la schermata Anteprima ordine.

Anteprima ordine - Controllo impatto commissione di esposizione

IB permette ai titolari del conto di verificare l'eventuale impatto di un ordine sulla Commissione di esposizione attesa mediante una funzionalità pensata per un utilizzo prima dell'inoltro dell'ordine. Tale funzionalità fornisce un preavviso di commissione grazie al quale è possibile modificare l'ordine prima della sua trasmissione e diminuire o annullare la commissione stessa.

Per attivare questa funzionalità è necessario cliccare con il pulsante destro del mouse sulla riga dell'ordine, dopodiché si aprirà la finestra Anteprima ordine contenente un link denominato "Controllo impatto commissione di esposizione" (si veda il riquadro evidenziato in rosso nella Figura I qui di seguito).

 Figura I

 

Cliccando sul link si aprirà una finestra raffigurante l'eventuale Commissione di esposizione associata alle posizioni esistenti, la variazione della commissione in caso di ordine processato e la commissione totale risultante una volta processato l'ordine (si veda il riquadro evidenziato in rosso nella Figura II qui di seguito).  I saldi sono suddivisi ulteriormente per categoria di prodotto alla quale le commissioni si applicano (es. azioni, petrolio). I titolari del conto possono chiudere la finestra senza inoltrare l'ordine qualora ritengano l'impatto della commissione eccessivo.

Figura II

 

Si veda l'articolo KB2275 per informazioni sull'utilizzo di Risk Navigator relative alla gestione e alla stima della Commissione di esposizione e il KB2344 per il monitoraggio delle commissioni mediante la Finestra conto

Vista previa de orden - Consulte impacto de tarifa de exposición

IB proporciona una función que permite a los titulares de cuenta comprobar qué impacto, si lo hubiere, tendría una orden sobre la Tarifa de Exposición proyectada. La función debería utilizarse antes de enviar la orden, para proporcionar una notificación por adelantado respecto a la tarifa y permitir que se realicen cambios en la orden antes de su envío para minimizar o eliminar la tarifa.

Esta función se activa si hace clic derecho en la línea de orden; se abrirá la ventana Vista Previa de Orden. Esta ventana contiene un enlace llamado "Comprobar el impacto de tarifa de exposición" (vea la casilla destacada en rojo en el ejemplo 1 siguiente).

Ejemplo I

 

Si hace clic en el enlace, se expandirá la ventana y se mostrará la tarifa de exposición, si la hubiere, asociada con las posiciones actuales, el cambio de la tarifa si se ejecutara la orden y la tarifa total resultante al ejecutarse la orden (vea la casilla destacada en rojo en el Ejemplo II siguiente).  Estos saldos se desglosan más aún por clasificación de producto a la cual se aplica la tarifa (por eje. liquidez, crudo). Los titulares de cuenta pueden simplemente cerrar la ventana sin transmitir la orden si consideran que el impacto en la tarifa es excesivo.

Ejemplo II

 

Por favor, consulte el artículo KB2275 para información respecto al uso del Risk Navigator de IB para gestionar y proyectar la tarifa de exposición y el artículo KB2344 para monitorizar tarifas a través de la Ventana de Cuenta.

Leveraged Forex Transactions

Introduction

IB classifies Forex transactions as either conversions or leveraged, with the ability to engage in leveraged transactions subject to receipt of the Leveraged Forex trading permission requested through the account application process or afterwards via Account Management.  As is the case with other products, the granting of Leveraged Forex trading permissions is subject to client qualifications and regulatory eligibility.  The following article provides an overview of leveraged forex transactions including a definition and working examples.

 

Overview

A forex conversion consists of exchanging a long position in one particular currency for a long position in another or exchanging a long position in order to close out a short position in another.  An example would be a client holding a long EUR balance, seeking to exchange it, in whole or part, for USD.  This particular transaction is not leveraged as it requires no financing on the part of IB and can be performed in either a cash or margin type account.

A leveraged forex transaction , in contrast, is one which is entered into on a margin basis or financed by IB.  Here, IB employs an algorithm which assesses account balances at the time a forex order is placed to determine whether it requires leverage. A leveraged condition requires that all of the following 3 tests be met:
 

1. If a short balance in any non-base currency exists; and,
2. If the sum of all short non-base currency cash balances (absolute value in when translated in the Base currency) exceeds the sum of positive non-cash asset values; and,
3. If the deficiency, if any, computed in test #2 exceeds the total NLV of the account.
 

Examples of Leveraged Forex transactions (all balances in USD equivalent):
 

Scenario 1

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (15,000) 0
USD 20,000 0

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD cash balance of 15,000)
Test 2: Leveraged (As short CAD cash balance of 15,000 exceeds long non-cash asset balances of 0)
Test 3: Leveraged (As Test 2 deficiency of 15,000 exceeds NLV of 5,000 by 10,000)

 

Scenario 2

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (55,000) 40,000
USD 30,000 (10,000)

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD balance of 55,000)
Test 2: Leveraged (As short CAD cash balance of 55,000 exceeds long CAD non-cash asset balance of 40,000 by 15,000)
Test 3: Leveraged (As Test 2 deficiency of 15,000 exceeds NLV of 5,000 by 10,000)

Scenario 3

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (10,000) (5,000)
USD 30,000 (10,000)

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD balance of 10,000)
Test 2: Leveraged (As short CAD cash balance of 10,000 exceeds long non-cash asset balances of 5,000 by 10,000)
Test 3: Leveraged (As Test 2 deficiency of 10,000 exceeds NLV of 5,000 by 5,000)

 

 

Examples of  Forex transactions that are not leveraged (all balances in USD equivalent):

Scenario 1

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD 0 (15,000)
USD 0 20,000

Test 1: Non-Leveraged (As there are no short cash balances)
Test 2: N/A
Test 3: N/A

Scenario 2

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD 0 (15,000)
USD 20,000 0

Test 1: Non-Leveraged (As there are no short cash balances)
Test 2: N/A
Test 3: N/A


Scenario 3

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (15,000) 0
USD 0 20,000

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD balance of 15,000)
Test 2: Non-Leveraged (As long USD non-cash asset balance of 20,000 exceeds short CAD cash balance of 15,000)
Test 3: N/A

Scenario 4

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (5,000) (10,000)
USD 30,000 (10,000)

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD balance of 5,000)
Test 2: Leveraged (As short CAD cash balance of 5,000 exceeds long non-cash asset balances of 0 by 5,000)
Test 3: Non-Leveraged (As Test 2 deficiency of 5,000 fully offset by NLV of 5,000)

 

Exposure Fee Monitoring via Account Window

The Account Window provides the high-level information suitable for monitoring one's account on a real-time basis. This includes key balances such as total equity and cash, the portfolio composition and margin balances for determining compliance with requirements and available buying power.  This window also includes information relating to the most recently assessed exposure fee and a projection of the next fee taking into consideration current positions.

To open the Account Window: 
• From TWS classic workspace, click on the Account icon, or from the Account menu select Account Window (Exhibit 1)
 

Exhibit 1

 

• From TWS Mosaic workspace, click on Account from the menu, and then select Account Window (Exhibit 2)

Exhibit 2

 

After opening the window, scroll down to the Margin Requirements section and click on the + sign in the upper-right hand corner to expand the section.  There, the "Last" and "Estimated Next" exposure fees will be detailed for each of the product classifications to which the fee applies (e.g., Equity, Oil).  Note that the "Last" balance represents the fee as of the date last assessed (note that fees are computed based upon open positions held as of the close of business and assessed shorly thereafter).  The "Estimated Next" balance represents the projected fee as of the current day's close taking into account position activity since the prior calculation (Exhibit 3).

Exhibit 3

 

To set the default view when the section is collapsed, click on the checkbox alongside any line item and those line items will remain displayed at all times.

 

Please see KB2275 for information regarding the use of IB's Risk Navigator for managing and projecting the Exposure Fee and KB2276 for verifying exposure fee through the Order Preview screen.

Order Preview - Check Exposure Fee Impact

IB provides a feature which allows account holders to check what impact, if any, an order will have upon the projected Exposure Fee. The feature is intended to be used prior to submitting the order to provide advance notice as to the fee and allow for changes to be made to the order prior to submission in order to minimize or eliminate the fee.

The feature is enabled by right-clicking on the order line at which point the Order Preview window will open. This window will contain a link titled "Check Exposure Fee Impact" (see red highlighted box in Exhibit I below).

Exhibit I

 

Clicking the link will expand the window and display the Exposure fee, if any, associated with the current positions, the change in the fee were the order to be executed, and the total resultant fee upon order execution (see red highlighted box in Exhibit II below).  These balances are further broken down by the product classification to which the fee applies (e.g. Equity, Oil). Account holders may simply close the window without transmitting the order if the fee impact is determined to be excessive.

Exhibit II

 

Please see KB2275 for information regarding the use of IB's Risk Navigator for managing and projecting the Exposure Fee and KB2344 for monitoring fees through the Account Window

Tools Provided to Monitor and Manage Margin

IB provides a variety of tools and information intended to provide account holders with real-time details as to their state of margin compliance so as to avoid forced liquidations. These include the following:

a.      Account Window – The account window is available for real-time account activity monitoring.  This window will display key values that update with every price change in the portfolio.  Included are account balances (cash, Net Liquidation Value, Equity with Loan Value), margin requirements (current, look ahead, overnight and post expiration), and balances available for trading (Available Funds and Excess Equity).
 
b.      Preview Order/Check Margin – Prior to transmitting an order it can be previewed including the impact upon the margin requirement were the order to be executed. Additional information may be found in KB644.
 
c.       Communications – IB will act to send out communications via TWS bulletin and/or email when the margin cushion in an account reaches 5% and a margin deficiency is therefore approaching. Account holders may also create their own margin alerts based upon the margin cushion which, when triggered, may generate email or text message alerts, TWS pop-up messages, flashing rows and sound alarms.
 
d.      Reports – A Daily Margin Report is made available with Account Management which reflects key margin balances and for portfolio margin accounts, requirements broken down by security class. 
 
In addition, IB provides a Last to Liquidate feature within the TWS Account window that allows customers to specify the positions they would prefer IB liquidate last in the event of a margin deficit. While IB will attempt on a best efforts basis to adhere to such requests, account positions and market conditions may make doing so impractical and IB therefore reserves the right to liquidate in the sequence it deems most optimal.

Trading on margin in an IRA account

IRA accounts, by definition, may not use borrowed funds to purchase securities and must pay for all long stock purchases in full, may not carry short stock positions and may not hold a debit cash balance (in any currency). IRA accounts are eligible to carry futures and option contracts. In addition, IB offers a specific form of IRA account referred to as a “Margin IRA” that allows the account holder to trade with unsettled funds, carry American style option spreads and maintain long balances in multiple currency denominations.

For additional information regarding trading permissions in an IRA account, refer to KB188.
 

How to determine if you are borrowing funds from IB

If the aggregate cash balance in a given account is a debit, or negative, then funds are being borrowed and the loan is subject to interest charges. A loan may still exist, however, even if the aggregate cash balance is a credit, or positive, as a result of balance netting or timing differences. The most common examples of this are as follows:

 
1.       Long vs. Short Currency Balances – accounts holders may borrow cash denominated in one currency if it can be secured by a credit balance in another.  Take, for example, a USD base currency account holding a long USD settled cash balance of 10,000, a short EUR settled cash balance of 5,000, with a EUR.USD exchange rate of 1.38:1. Here, for statement reporting and interest computation purposes, the overall cash balance is a USD credit of 3,088 (10,000 – (5,000 * 1.38)). As each currency is subject to a unique funding and reinvestment arrangement, the short balance would be subject to financing costs based upon its benchmark rate and tier. This cost may be offset by any interest earned on the long balance based upon its benchmark rate and tier.
 
2.       Gross Balances by Segment – IB’s Universal Account contains multiple sub accounts or segments, each of which holds positions and collateral which, for regulatory and customer protection purposes, may not be commingled. This separation does not allow for netting of balances across segments and a credit in one segment may therefore not offset a debit in another. Take, for example, an IB LLC account holding both securities and commodities positions with the securities segment maintaining a debit cash balance of USD 3,000 and the commodities segment a credit cash balance of USD 8,000. While the account holds an overall net credit balance of USD 5,000, the short balance would be subject to an interest charge which may be partially offset by any interest earned on the long balance.
 
3.       Short Sales – a short sale is a margin transaction in which the account holder is borrowing stock rather than cash. While the proceeds from the short sale are credited to the cash balance of the account, these funds must be posted with the lender of the shares as collateral to secure their return. As a result, and in recognition of the fact that the loan transaction is subject to its own financing terms, the cash collateralizing the loan is excluded for the purpose of determining whether a margin loan exists.
 
As example, consider an account reporting net liquidating equity (all balances in USD) of  9,000 comprised of a credit cash balance of 4,000, long stock valued at 10,000 and short stock valued at 5,000. In order to determine whether funds are being borrowed to finance the long stock position, the 5,000 portion of the cash pledged as collateral to the lender of the shares is deducted from the overall 4,000 cash balance, resulting in a 1,000 debit. This debit is subject to interest charges and the cash underlying the stock borrow either an interest charge in the case of hard to borrow shares or a short stock rebate if the shares are easy to borrow and reinvestment rates sufficiently high.
 
4.       Unsettled Funds - borrowings are determined based upon settled funds and the timeframe by which payment is due or received for a given transaction is product specific (e.g., stocks generally settle in 3 business days, spot currencies 2 and derivatives 1). For statement and trading platform purposes, cash balances are reported on a trade date rather than settlement date basis, as if settlement has completed.
 
As a result, an account reporting a credit cash balance may, in fact, still be carrying a margin loan if that balance includes proceeds from the sale of stock purchased with borrowed funds awaiting settlement. Similarly, an account may report a trade date based debit balance, but not yet incurring a margin loan and interest charges, as the trade has not yet settled.
 
For additional information regarding interest calculations, please refer to How Interest is Calculated.

Overview of Margin Methodologies

Introduction

The methodology used to calculate the margin requirement for a given position is largely determined by the following three factors:
 
1.      The product type;
2.      The rules of the exchange on which the product is listed and/or the primary regulator of the carrying broker;
3.      IB’s “house” requirements.
 
While a number of methodologies exist, they tend to be categorized into one of two approaches: rules based or risk based.  Rules based methods generally assume uniform margin rates across like products, offer no inter-product offsets and consider derivative instruments in a manner similar to that of their underlying. In this sense, they offer ease of computation but oftentimes make assumptions which, while simple to execute, may overstate or understate the risk of an instrument relative to its historic performance. A common example of a rules based methodology is the U.S. based Reg. T requirement.
 
In contrast, risk based methodologies often seek to apply margin coverage reflective of the product’s past performance, recognize some inter-product offsets and seek to model the non-linear risk of derivative products using mathematical pricing models. These methodologies, while intuitive, involve computations which may not be easily replicable by the client. Moreover, to the extent that their inputs rely upon observed market behavior, may result in requirements that are subject to rapid and sizable fluctuation. Examples of risk based methodologies include TIMS and SPAN,
 
Regardless of whether the methodology is rules or risk based, most brokers will apply “house” margin requirements which serve to increase the statutory, or base, requirement in targeted instances where the broker’s view of exposure is greater than that which would satisfied solely by meeting that base requirement. An overview of the most common risk and rules based methodologies is provided below.
 
Methodology Overview
  
Risk Based
a.      Portfolio Margin (TIMS) – The Theoretical Intermarket Margin System, or TIMS, is a risk based methodology created by the Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) which computes the value of the portfolio given a series of hypothetical market scenarios where price changes are assumed and positions revalued. The methodology uses an option pricing model to revalue options and the OCC scenarios are augmented by a number of house scenarios which serve to capture additional risks such as extreme market moves, concentrated positions and shifts in option implied volatilities. In addition, there are certain securities (e.g., Pink Sheet, OTCBB and low cap) for which margin may not be extended. Once the projected portfolio values are determined at each scenario, the one which projects the greatest loss is the margin requirement.
 
Positions to which the TIMS methodology is eligible to be applied include U.S. stocks, ETFs, options, single stock futures and Non U.S. stocks and options which meet the SEC’s ready market test.
 
As this methodology uses a much more complex set of computations than one that is rules based, it tends to more accurately model risk and generally offers greater leverage. Given its ability to offer enhanced leverage and that the requirements fluctuate and may react quickly to changing market conditions, it is intended for sophisticated individuals and requires minimum equity of $110,000 to initiate and $100,000 to maintain. Requirements for stocks under this methodology generally range from 15% to 30% with the more favorable requirement applied to portfolios which contain a highly diversified group of stocks which have historically exhibited low volatility and which tend to employ option hedges.
 
b.       SPAN – Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk, or SPAN, is a risk-based margin methodology created by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) that is designed for futures and future options.  Similar to TIMS, SPAN determines a margin requirement by calculating the value of the portfolio given a set of hypothetical market scenarios where underlying price changes and option implied volatilities are assumed to change. Again, IB will include in these assumptions house scenarios which account for extreme price moves along with the particular impact such moves may have upon deep out-of-the-money options. The scenario which projects the greatest loss becomes the margin requirement. A detailed overview of the SPAN margining system is provided in KB563.
 
Rules Based
a.      Reg. T – The U.S. central bank, the Federal Reserve Board, holds responsibility for maintaining the stability of the financial system and containing systemic risk that may arise in financial markets. It does this, in part, by governing the amount of credit that broker dealers may extend to customers who borrow money to buy securities on margin. 
 
This is accomplished through Regulation T, or Reg. T as it is commonly referred, which provides for establishment of a margin account and which imposes the initial margin requirement and payment rules on certain securities transactions. For example, on stock purchases, Reg. T currently requires an initial margin deposit by the client equal to 50% of the purchase value, allowing the broker to extend credit or finance the remaining 50%. For example, an account holder purchasing $1,000 worth of securities is required to deposit $500 and allowed to borrow $500 to hold those securities.
 
Reg. T only establishes the initial margin requirement and the maintenance requirement, the amount necessary to continue holding the position once initiated, is set by exchange rule (25% for stocks). Reg. T also does not establish margin requirements for securities options as this falls under the jurisdiction of the listing exchange’s rules which are subject to SEC approval.  Options held in a Reg.T account are also subject to a rules based methodology where short positions are treated like a stock equivalent and margin relief is provided for spread transactions. Finally, positions held in a qualifying portfolio margin account are exempt from the requirements of Reg. T. 

 

Where to Learn More

Key margin definitions

Tools provided to monitor and manage margin

Determining buying power

How to determine if you are borrowing funds from IB

Why does IB calculate and report a margin requirement when I am not borrowing funds?

Trading on margin in an IRA account

What is SMA and how does it work?

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