Anteprima ordine - Controllo impatto commissione di esposizione

IB permette ai titolari del conto di verificare l'eventuale impatto di un ordine sulla Commissione di esposizione attesa mediante una funzionalità pensata per un utilizzo prima dell'inoltro dell'ordine. Tale funzionalità fornisce un preavviso di commissione grazie al quale è possibile modificare l'ordine prima della sua trasmissione e diminuire o annullare la commissione stessa.

Per attivare questa funzionalità è necessario cliccare con il pulsante destro del mouse sulla riga dell'ordine, dopodiché si aprirà la finestra Anteprima ordine contenente un link denominato "Controllo impatto commissione di esposizione" (si veda il riquadro evidenziato in rosso nella Figura I qui di seguito).

 Figura I

 

Cliccando sul link si aprirà una finestra raffigurante l'eventuale Commissione di esposizione associata alle posizioni esistenti, la variazione della commissione in caso di ordine processato e la commissione totale risultante una volta processato l'ordine (si veda il riquadro evidenziato in rosso nella Figura II qui di seguito).  I saldi sono suddivisi ulteriormente per categoria di prodotto alla quale le commissioni si applicano (es. azioni, petrolio). I titolari del conto possono chiudere la finestra senza inoltrare l'ordine qualora ritengano l'impatto della commissione eccessivo.

Figura II

 

Si veda l'articolo KB2275 per informazioni sull'utilizzo di Risk Navigator relative alla gestione e alla stima della Commissione di esposizione e il KB2344 per il monitoraggio delle commissioni mediante la Finestra conto

Utilizzo di Risk Navigator per la stima delle commissioni di esposizione

Lo strumento Risk Navigator di IB prevede una funzionalità di scenario personalizzato per poter determinare l'eventuale effetto delle variazioni del proprio portafoglio sulla commissione di esposizione.   Di seguito sono elencati i passaggi per creare un portafoglio “What–If”, o mediante variazioni ipotetiche a un portafoglio esistente o tramite un portafoglio completamente nuovo, e calcolarne la commissione.   Si ricorda che questa funzionalità è disponibile tramite TWS 951 e versioni successive.

Punto 1: apertura di un nuovo portafoglio “What-if”
Dalla piattaforma di trading TWS classica selezionare le opzioni del menu Strumenti di analisi, Risk Navigator e Apri nuovo What-If (Figura 1).
 
Figura 1

 

Punto 2: scelta del portafoglio iniziale
Apparirà una finestra pop-up (Figura 2) che richiede di indicare se si desidera creare un portafoglio ipotetico a partire dal proprio portafoglio esistente oppure crearne uno nuovo.  Cliccando sul pulsante "Sì" è possibile scaricare le posizioni esistenti nel nuovo portafoglio “What-If”.
 
Figura 2

 
Cliccando sul pulsante "No" si aprirà il portafoglio “What – If” privo di posizioni (Figura 3).  Selezionare la voce associata alla categoria del prodotto per cui si desidera creare posizioni ipotetiche (es. Capitale proprio).
  
Exhibit 3
 
 
 
Punto 3: aggiunta di nuove posizioni
Per aggiungere posizioni al portafoglio "What - If" è necessario cliccare sulla cella verde denominata "Nuova" e premere il simbolo sottostante (Figura 4), scegliere la categoria di prodotto (Figura 5) e inserire la quantità della posizione (Figura 6)
 
Figura 4
 
 
Figura 5
 
 
Figura 6
 
 
Punto 4: calcolo della commissione di esposizione
Per visualizzare la commissione di esposizione attesa in base al proprio portafoglio “What-If” è necessario cliccare sulle opzioni del menu Report e Commissione di esposizione (Figura 7).  Apparirà una finestra pop-up raffigurante la commissione di esposizione attesa suddivisa per categoria di prodotto (Figura 8).
 
Figura 7
 
 
Figura 8

 

 

Si veda l'articolo KB2344 per informazioni sul monitoraggio della commissione di esposizione mediante la Finestra conto e il KB2276 per verificare la commissione di esposizione attraverso la schermata Anteprima ordine.

Vista previa de orden - Consulte impacto de tarifa de exposición

IB proporciona una función que permite a los titulares de cuenta comprobar qué impacto, si lo hubiere, tendría una orden sobre la Tarifa de Exposición proyectada. La función debería utilizarse antes de enviar la orden, para proporcionar una notificación por adelantado respecto a la tarifa y permitir que se realicen cambios en la orden antes de su envío para minimizar o eliminar la tarifa.

Esta función se activa si hace clic derecho en la línea de orden; se abrirá la ventana Vista Previa de Orden. Esta ventana contiene un enlace llamado "Comprobar el impacto de tarifa de exposición" (vea la casilla destacada en rojo en el ejemplo 1 siguiente).

Ejemplo I

 

Si hace clic en el enlace, se expandirá la ventana y se mostrará la tarifa de exposición, si la hubiere, asociada con las posiciones actuales, el cambio de la tarifa si se ejecutara la orden y la tarifa total resultante al ejecutarse la orden (vea la casilla destacada en rojo en el Ejemplo II siguiente).  Estos saldos se desglosan más aún por clasificación de producto a la cual se aplica la tarifa (por eje. liquidez, crudo). Los titulares de cuenta pueden simplemente cerrar la ventana sin transmitir la orden si consideran que el impacto en la tarifa es excesivo.

Ejemplo II

 

Por favor, consulte el artículo KB2275 para información respecto al uso del Risk Navigator de IB para gestionar y proyectar la tarifa de exposición y el artículo KB2344 para monitorizar tarifas a través de la Ventana de Cuenta.

Utilizar el Risk Navigator para proyectar tarifas de exposición

El Risk Navigator de IB proporciona una función para personalizar escenarios que permite determinar el efecto, si lo hubiera, que tendrían los cambios de la cartera sobre la tarifa de exposición.   Abajo se indican los pasos para crear una cartera “¿y si?” a través de cambios asumidos para una cartera existente o a través de una cartera propuesta completamente nueva junto al tiempo que se determina la tarifa resultante.   Tenga en cuenta que esta función está disponible solo para la versión 951 y superiores de TWS.

Paso 1: Abra una nueva cartera “¿y si?
Desde la plataforma de negociación de TWS clásica, seleccione las opciones de menú Herramientas analíticas, Risk Navigator, y luego Abrir nuevo ¿y si? (Ejemplo 1).
 
Ejemplo 1

 

Paso 2: Defina la cartera inicial
Aparecerá una ventana emergente (Ejemplo 2) desde la cual se le pedirá que defina si desea crear una cartera hipotética a partir de su cartera real o si desea crear una cartera completamente nueva. Si hace clic en "Sí" se descargarán las posiciones existentes a la nueva cartera "¿y si?".
 
Ejemplo 2

 
Si hace clic en el botón "No", se abrirá una cartera "¿y si?" sin ninguna posición (Ejemplo 3).  Seleccione la pestaña asociada con la clasificación de producto para la que le gustaría crear posiciones hipotéticas (por ej., liquidez).
  
Ejemplo 3
 
 
 
Paso 3: Añada posiciones
Para añadir posiciones a la cartera "¿Y si?," haga clic en la fila verde llamada "Nueva" y luego introduzca el símbolo del subyacente (Ejemplo 4), defina el tipo de producto (Ejemplo 5) e introduzca la cantidad de posición (Ejemplo 6).
 
Ejemplo 4
 
 
Ejemplo 5
 
 
Ejemplo 6
 
 
Paso 4: Determine tarifa de exposición
Para ver la tarifa de exposición proyectada basada en su cartera "¿Y si?", haga clic en las opciones de menú Informes y luego Tarifa de Exposición (Ejemplo 7).  Aparecerá una ventana emergente que muestre la tarifa de exposición proyectada desglosada por clasificación de producto (Ejemplo 8).
 
Ejemplo 7
 
 
Ejemplo 8

 

 

Por favor, consulte el artículo KB2344 para más información sobre monitorización de la tarifa de exposición a través de la ventana de cuenta y el artículo KB2276 para verificar la tarifa de exposición a través de la pantalla Vista previa de Órdenes.

Order Preview - Check Exposure Fee Impact

IB provides a feature which allows account holders to check what impact, if any, an order will have upon the projected Exposure Fee. The feature is intended to be used prior to submitting the order to provide advance notice as to the fee and allow for changes to be made to the order prior to submission in order to minimize or eliminate the fee.

The feature is enabled by right-clicking on the order line at which point the Order Preview window will open. This window will contain a link titled "Check Exposure Fee Impact" (see red highlighted box in Exhibit I below).

Exhibit I

 

Clicking the link will expand the window and display the Exposure fee, if any, associated with the current positions, the change in the fee were the order to be executed, and the total resultant fee upon order execution (see red highlighted box in Exhibit II below).  These balances are further broken down by the product classification to which the fee applies (e.g. Equity, Oil). Account holders may simply close the window without transmitting the order if the fee impact is determined to be excessive.

Exhibit II

 

Please see KB2275 for information regarding the use of IB's Risk Navigator for managing and projecting the Exposure Fee and KB2344 for monitoring fees through the Account Window

Using Risk Navigator to Project Exposure Fees

IB's Risk Navigator provides a custom scenario feature which allows one to determine what effect, if any, changes to their portfolio will have to the Exposure fee.   Outlined below are the steps for creating a “What–If” portfolio through assumed changes to an existing portfolio or through an entirely new proposed portfolio along with determining the resultant fee.   Note that this feature is available through TWS build 951 and above

Step 1: Open a new “What-if” portfolio
From the Classic TWS trading platform, select the Analytical Tools, Risk Navigator, and then Open New What-If menu options (Exhibit1).
 
Exhibit 1

 

Step 2: Define starting portfolio
A pop-up window will appear (Exhibit 2) from which you will be prompted to define whether you would like to create a hypothetical portfolio starting from your current portfolio or a newly created portfolio.  Clicking on the "yes" button will serve to download existing positions to the new “What-If” portfolio.
 
Exhibit 2

 
Clicking on the "No" button will open up the “What – If” Portfolio with no positions (Exhibit 3).  Select the tab associated with the product classification for which you'd like to create hypothetical positions (e.g., Equity).
  
Exhibit 3
 
 
 
Step 3: Add Positions
To add a position to the "What - If" portfolio, click on the green row titled "New" and then enter the underlying symbol (Exhibit 4), define the product type (Exhibit 5) and enter position quantity (Exhibit 6)
 
Exhibit 4
 
 
Exhibit 5
 
 
Exhibit 6
 
 
Step 4: Determine Exposure Fee
To view the projected exposure fee based upon your “What-If” portfolio, click on the Report and then Exposure Fee menu options (Exhibit 7).  A pop-up window will appear displaying the projected exposure fee broken down by product classification (Exhibit 8).
 
Exhibit 7
 
 
Exhibit 8

 

 

Please see KB2344 for information on monitoring the Exposure fee through the Account Window and KB2276 for verifying exposure fee through the Order Preview screen.

Overview of Margin Methodologies

Introduction

The methodology used to calculate the margin requirement for a given position is largely determined by the following three factors:
 
1.      The product type;
2.      The rules of the exchange on which the product is listed and/or the primary regulator of the carrying broker;
3.      IB’s “house” requirements.
 
While a number of methodologies exist, they tend to be categorized into one of two approaches: rules based or risk based.  Rules based methods generally assume uniform margin rates across like products, offer no inter-product offsets and consider derivative instruments in a manner similar to that of their underlying. In this sense, they offer ease of computation but oftentimes make assumptions which, while simple to execute, may overstate or understate the risk of an instrument relative to its historic performance. A common example of a rules based methodology is the U.S. based Reg. T requirement.
 
In contrast, risk based methodologies often seek to apply margin coverage reflective of the product’s past performance, recognize some inter-product offsets and seek to model the non-linear risk of derivative products using mathematical pricing models. These methodologies, while intuitive, involve computations which may not be easily replicable by the client. Moreover, to the extent that their inputs rely upon observed market behavior, may result in requirements that are subject to rapid and sizable fluctuation. Examples of risk based methodologies include TIMS and SPAN,
 
Regardless of whether the methodology is rules or risk based, most brokers will apply “house” margin requirements which serve to increase the statutory, or base, requirement in targeted instances where the broker’s view of exposure is greater than that which would satisfied solely by meeting that base requirement. An overview of the most common risk and rules based methodologies is provided below.
 
Methodology Overview
  
Risk Based
a.      Portfolio Margin (TIMS) – The Theoretical Intermarket Margin System, or TIMS, is a risk based methodology created by the Options Clearing Corporation (OCC) which computes the value of the portfolio given a series of hypothetical market scenarios where price changes are assumed and positions revalued. The methodology uses an option pricing model to revalue options and the OCC scenarios are augmented by a number of house scenarios which serve to capture additional risks such as extreme market moves, concentrated positions and shifts in option implied volatilities. In addition, there are certain securities (e.g., Pink Sheet, OTCBB and low cap) for which margin may not be extended. Once the projected portfolio values are determined at each scenario, the one which projects the greatest loss is the margin requirement.
 
Positions to which the TIMS methodology is eligible to be applied include U.S. stocks, ETFs, options, single stock futures and Non U.S. stocks and options which meet the SEC’s ready market test.
 
As this methodology uses a much more complex set of computations than one that is rules based, it tends to more accurately model risk and generally offers greater leverage. Given its ability to offer enhanced leverage and that the requirements fluctuate and may react quickly to changing market conditions, it is intended for sophisticated individuals and requires minimum equity of $110,000 to initiate and $100,000 to maintain. Requirements for stocks under this methodology generally range from 15% to 30% with the more favorable requirement applied to portfolios which contain a highly diversified group of stocks which have historically exhibited low volatility and which tend to employ option hedges.
 
b.       SPAN – Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk, or SPAN, is a risk-based margin methodology created by the Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME) that is designed for futures and future options.  Similar to TIMS, SPAN determines a margin requirement by calculating the value of the portfolio given a set of hypothetical market scenarios where underlying price changes and option implied volatilities are assumed to change. Again, IB will include in these assumptions house scenarios which account for extreme price moves along with the particular impact such moves may have upon deep out-of-the-money options. The scenario which projects the greatest loss becomes the margin requirement. A detailed overview of the SPAN margining system is provided in KB563.
 
Rules Based
a.      Reg. T – The U.S. central bank, the Federal Reserve Board, holds responsibility for maintaining the stability of the financial system and containing systemic risk that may arise in financial markets. It does this, in part, by governing the amount of credit that broker dealers may extend to customers who borrow money to buy securities on margin. 
 
This is accomplished through Regulation T, or Reg. T as it is commonly referred, which provides for establishment of a margin account and which imposes the initial margin requirement and payment rules on certain securities transactions. For example, on stock purchases, Reg. T currently requires an initial margin deposit by the client equal to 50% of the purchase value, allowing the broker to extend credit or finance the remaining 50%. For example, an account holder purchasing $1,000 worth of securities is required to deposit $500 and allowed to borrow $500 to hold those securities.
 
Reg. T only establishes the initial margin requirement and the maintenance requirement, the amount necessary to continue holding the position once initiated, is set by exchange rule (25% for stocks). Reg. T also does not establish margin requirements for securities options as this falls under the jurisdiction of the listing exchange’s rules which are subject to SEC approval.  Options held in a Reg.T account are also subject to a rules based methodology where short positions are treated like a stock equivalent and margin relief is provided for spread transactions. Finally, positions held in a qualifying portfolio margin account are exempt from the requirements of Reg. T. 

 

Where to Learn More

Key margin definitions

Tools provided to monitor and manage margin

Determining buying power

How to determine if you are borrowing funds from IB

Why does IB calculate and report a margin requirement when I am not borrowing funds?

Trading on margin in an IRA account

What is SMA and how does it work?

Margin Requirement on Leveraged ETF Products

Leveraged Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) are a subset of general ETFs and are intended to generate performance in multiples of that of the underlying index or benchmark (e.g. 200%, 300% or greater). In addition certain of these ETFs seek to a generate performance which is not only a multiple of but also the inverse of the underlying index or benchmark (e.g., a short ETF). To accomplish this, these leveraged funds typically include among their holdings derivative instruments such as options, futures or swaps which are intended to provide the desired leverage and/or inverse performance. 

Exchange margin rules seek to recognize the additional leverage and risk associated with these instruments by establishing a margin rate which is commensurate with that level of leverage (but not to exceed 100% of the ETF value). Thus, for example, whereas the base strategy-based maintenance margin requirement for a non-leveraged long ETF is set at 25% and a short non-leveraged ETF at 30%, examples of the maintenance margin change for leveraged ETFs are as follows:

1. Long an ETF having a 200% leverage factor: 50% (= 2 x 25%) 

2. Short an ETF having a 300% leverage factor: 90% (= 3 x 30%) 

A similar scaling in margin is also in effect for options. For example, the Reg. T maintenance margin requirement for a non-leveraged, short broad based ETF index option is 100% of the option premium plus 15% of the ETF market value, less any out-of-the-money amount (to a minimum of 10% of ETF market value in the case of calls and 10% of the option strike price in the case of puts). In the case where the option underlying is a leveraged ETF, however, the 15% rate is increased by the leverage factor of the ETF. 

In the case of portfolio margin accounts, the effect is similar, with the scan ranges by which the leveraged ETF positions are stress tested increasing by the ETF leverage factor.  See NASD Rule 2520 and NYSE Rule 431 for further details.

What happens if the net liquidating equity in my Portfolio Margining account falls below USD 100,000?

Overview: 

Portfolio Margining accounts reporting net liquidating equity below USD 100,000 are limited to entering trades which serve solely to reduce the margin requirement until such time as either: 1) the equity increases to above 100,000 or 2) the account holder requests a downgrade to Reg T style margining through Account Management (select the Trading Access and then trading Configuration menu options).

If a Portfolio Margining eligible account reporting net liquidating equity below USD 100,000 enters an order which, if executed, would serve to increase the margin requirement, the following TWS message will be displayed: "Your order is not accepted, margin requirement increase not allowed. Equity with loan value is less than 100,000.00 USD." 

IMPORTANT NOTICE

Please note that requests to downgrade to reg T will become effective the following business day if submitted prior to 4:00 ET.  Also note that as the Reg T margining methodology generally affords less leverage than does Portfolio Margining, requesting a downgrade may lead to the automatic liquidation of positions in your account in order to comply with Reg T.  You will receive a warning message if that is the case at the time you request the downgrade.

What positions are eligible for Portfolio Margining?

Overview: 

Portfolio Margining is eligible for US securities positions including stocks, ETFs, stock and index options and single stock futures.  It does not apply to US futures or futures options positions or non-US stocks, which may already be margined using an exchange approved risk based margining methodology.

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