Overview of Dividend Payments in Lieu ("PIL")

Payment In Lieu of a Dividend (“payment in lieu” or “PIL”) is a term commonly used to describe a cash payment to an account in an amount equivalent to the ordinary dividend. Generally, the amount paid is per share owned. In addition, the dividend in most cases is paid quarterly (i.e., four times per year). The dividend payment is classified as follows: (1) ordinary dividend; and/or (2) payment in lieu of dividend. The former designation is for a payment received directly from the issuer or its paying agent. The latter designation is used when a cash payment is received from other than the issuer or the issuer’s agent.

Payment in lieu of an ordinary dividend may be received when the shares have been bought on margin, or when the account has a subsequent margin loan due to borrowing money to facilitate the payment for additional purchases of shares or as the result of a withdrawal from the margin account. Payment in lieu of a dividend may also be received when shares are owed to the brokerage firm and have not been received by the dividend record date.

To better understand the difference between an ordinary dividend and a payment in lieu, we will explain the steps taken by IB to comply with US regulations. Each business day, the Firm analyzes the positions in each customer account, every borrow, every loan, every pledge of shares for each security held by its customers to determine how many shares are held on margin and the associated margin loan balances. For each security that is fully paid, we are required to segregate those shares in a good control location (for example, a depository or a US bank. See KB1964).  For shares that are held as collateral for a margin loan we are allowed to hypothecate and re-hypothecate shares valued up to 140 percent of the total debit balance in the customer account (See KB1967).

While the guidelines noted above for segregation of securities are clear, there are exceptions that are outside of the Firm's control. For instance, through no fault of its own, IB may have a deficit in segregated shares due to customer activity that changes the Firm’s overall segregation requirement for a security. This may be for a variety of reasons including a delay in receiving shares that have been loaned out to a counterparty after segregation requirements are recalculated and the Firm has issued a stock loan recall, sales of securities by one or more customers that reduce or eliminate margin loans, the deposit of cash by customers that similarly reduce or eliminate margin loans, or a failure of a counterparty to deliver shares for a trade settlement.

Upon issuing a recall of shares loaned, rules permit the borrower of the shares up to 3 business days to return them. The borrower of the shares is required to return them to us when we issue a recall, but if by business day 3 the shares have not been returned, IB may then issue a buy-in notice to begin the process of regaining possession of the shares. An additional 3 business days is generally needed for the purchased shares to settle and be delivered to the firm. Similarly if a counterparty fails to deliver by settlement date, shares to IB to settle a customer purchase, IB can issue a buy-in notice but the purchase of such shares are also subject to trade settlement in 3 days.

To summarize, if by the record date of a dividend certain shares have not been delivered to IB, the Firm will be paid an amount of cash that is equivalent to the dividend amount, but IB will not receive a qualified dividend payment directly from the issuer. In such cases, the Firm will receive PIL and will have no choice but to allocate such payment in lieu to customer accounts. The firm first allocates PIL to those accounts who hold the shares as collateral for a margin loan. If, after PIL is allocated to all shareholders whose accounts are not fully paid, any portion of PIL remains to be paid, it is allocated on a pro-rata basis to each remaining client account.

Account holders should be aware that a PIL may have different tax consequences than an ordinary dividend and should consult a tax advisor to understand such differences and whether they apply to their particular situation.

Notice of Special Margin Requirements Relating to UK Referendum (BrExit)

NOTICE DATED 16 June 2016

On 23 June 2016, the UK will vote on a referendum (i.e., BrExit) to decide whether to remain a part of the European Union. This vote is expected to create substantial market volatility in the days leading up to the vote and perhaps even greater volatility should the final vote be for the UK to separate from the EU. The market consensus suggests that separation would lead to a weaker GBP, lower equity prices in the short term, and a possible secondary adverse effect on the EUR due to the precedent setting event of a country leaving the EU.

In anticipation of this volatility, IB will be increasing margin across a range of products, including the following:


• GBP currency/assets: maintenance margin 7.5% (now 2.5%), initial margin 12% (now 9%)
• EUR currency/assets: maintenance margin 5% (now 3.0%), initial margin 5% (now 4%)
• GBP/EUR currency futures: same margins as for spot FX above
• GBP/EUR currency options: scanning range for maintenance margin will increase to 7%.
• FTSE index derivatives: scanning range for maintenance margin will increase from 5.6% to 8%
• GBP denominated stocks: portfolio margin maintenance of 20% (already in place)
• CFDs on GBP denominated stocks: same as the underlying stock
• UK linked stocks (for example, ADRs on UK stocks: portfolio margin maintenance will increase to 20%
 

Changes are to be implemented in steps over a 4 business days period starting 16 June, 2016. IB urges all clients with substantial positions in products that are considered exposed to the BrExit vote, in particular those with net short option positions, to prepare for substantially higher upcoming margin requirements and adjust their risk and/or capital positions accordingly.
 

Проверка влияния на плату за риск при предпросмотре ордера

IB дает владельцам счетов возможность проверить, какое влияние ордер окажет на прогнозируемую плату за риск. Эту функцию следует использовать перед отправкой ордера для определения изменений, необходимых, чтобы снизить или избежать такую плату.

Для доступа к инструменту нужно открыть окно предварительного просмотра, щелкнув правой кнопкой мыши по строке ордера. В нем можно будет увидеть ссылку "Проверка влияния на плату за риск" (см. отмеченную красным область на Изображении 1).

Изображение 1

 

Щелкнув по ссылке, можно расширить окно и увидеть плату за риск (если она требуется), связанную с текущими позициями, ее изменение при исполнении данного ордера, а также конечную плату после исполнения (см. отмеченную красным область на Изображении 2). Дальнейшие показатели делятся по классам инструментов, подвергающимся упомянутой плате (напр. акции, нефть). Владелец счета может просто закрыть окно, не отправив ордер, если рост итоговой платы за риск покажется ему избыточным.

Изображение 2

 

Узнайте больше об управлении платой за риск и ее прогнозировании при помощи "Навигатора риска" IB в статье KB2275, а также об ее отслеживании в статье KB2344.

Kontrolle der Risikogebühren über das Kontoübersichtsfenster

Das Kontoübersichtsfenster zeigt Ihnen die übergeordneten, allgemeinen Informationen an, die Sie benötigen, um Ihr Konto auf Echtzeit-Basis zu kontrollieren. Dies umfasst die wichtigsten Salden, wie z. B. die Gesamtsummen Ihres Bar- und Aktienkapitals, die Portfolio-Zusammensetzung und Margin-Salden zur Feststellung der Einhaltung der Mindestanforderungen und der verfügbaren Kaufkraft. Das Fenster enthält außerdem Informationen zu den zuletzt berechneten Risikogebühren und eine Prognose für die nächste Gebührenzahlung unter Berücksichtigung der aktuellen Positionen.

So öffnen Sie die Kontoübersicht: 
• Klicken Sie in der klassischen Version der TWS auf das „Konto“-Symbol, oder wählen Sie im Menü „Konto“ den Menüpunkt „Kontoübersicht“ aus (Abbildung 1)
 

Abbildung 1

 

• In der Mosaic-Version der TWS klicken Sie hierzu in der oberen Menüleiste auf „Konto“ und anschließend auf „Kontoübersicht“ (Abbildung 2)

Abbildung 2

 

Wenn Sie das Fenster geöffnet haben, scrollen Sie nach unten bis zum Abschnitt Margin-Anforderungen und klicken auf das „+“ Zeichen oben rechts, um den Abschnitt zu erweitern. Darin werden die Beträge der letzten und erwarteten nächsten Risikogebühr für jede Produktklasse, für die solche Gebühren erhoben werden (z. B. Aktien, Öl), im Detail angezeigt. Bitte beachten Sie, dass der „letzte“ Betrag die Gebühr mit dem Stand vom letzten Berechnungsdatum angibt (Gebühren werden auf Basis der bei Handelsschluss gehaltenen offenen Positionen berechnet und kurz danach in Rechnung gestellt). Der „geschätzte nächste“ Gebührenbetrag stellt die voraussichtliche Gebühr auf Basis des Stands bei Handelsschluss am aktuellen Tag dar, unter Berücksichtigung von Positionsveränderungen seit der vorangegangenen Berechnung (Abbildung 3).

Abbildung 3

 

Um anzupassen, welche Informationen in der Ausgangsansicht angezeigt werden, wenn der Abschnitt minimiert ist, müssen Sie lediglich die Kontrollkästchen neben den entsprechenden Posten markieren. Die markierten Informationen bleiben anschließend jederzeit sichtbar.

 

In Artikel KB2275 erhalten Sie Informationen zur Nutzung des RiskNavigator von IB  für die Verwaltung und Vorabberechnung von Risikogebühren. Informationen zur Verifizierung der Risikogebühren über das Ordervorschaufenster erhalten Sie in Artikel KB2276.

Ordervorschau - Auswirkungen auf Risikogebühren überprüfen

IB stellt Ihnen eine Funktion zur Verfügung, mit der Kontoinhaber überprüfen können, ob und in welchem Maße sich eine Order auf die voraussichtlichen Risikogebühren auswirken würde. Diese Funktion sollte vor der Übermittlung einer Order verwendet werden, damit Sie bereits vorab über die resultierenden Gebühren informiert sind. So haben Sie die Möglichkeit, Änderungen an der Order vorzunehmen, noch bevor Sie diese übermitteln, um ggf. die anfallenden Gebühren zu verringern oder zu aufzuheben.

Sie können diese Funktion aktivieren, indem Sie mit der rechten Maustaste die Orderzeile anklicken. Daraufhin öffnet sich die Ordervorschau. Dieses Fenster enthält einen Link mit der Bezeichnung „Auswirkungen auf Risikogebühren prüfen“ (s. rote Markierung in Abbildung I).

Abbildung I

 

Wenn Sie diesen Link anklicken, wird das Fenster erweitert. Sie sehen nun eine Übersicht über ggf. anfallende Risikogebühren für die aktuellen Positionen, sowie die Veränderung der Gebühr bei Ausführung der angezeigten Order und die Gesamtgebührensumme nach Ausführung der Order (s. rote Markierung in Abbildung II unten). Diese Beträge werden weiter in die jeweiligen Produktklassen aufgeschlüsselt, für die die Gebühren anfallen (z. B. Aktien, Öl). Kontoinhaber können dieses Fenster einfach schließen, ohne die Order zu übermitteln, falls die Auswirkungen auf die Risikogebühren sich als zu groß erweisen.

Abbildung II

 

In Artikel KB2275 erhalten Sie Informationen zur Verwendung des RiskNavigator von IB für die Verwaltung und Vorabberechnung von Risikogebühren. Informationen zur Kontrolle der Gebühren über das Kontoübersichtsfenster erhalten Sie in Artikel KB2344.

Monitoraggio Commissione di esposizione mediante Finestra conto

La Finestra conto fornisce informazioni generali che permettono il monitoraggio del proprio conto in tempo reale. Tali informazioni comprendono i saldi principali quali, per esempio, l'ammontare del capitale proprio e della liquidità, la composizione del portafoglio e i saldi di margine per la verifica della conformità ai requisiti e del potere d'acquisto disponibile.  Da questa schermata si ottengono anche informazioni relative all'ultima commissione di esposizione addebitata e una stima della commissione successiva sulla base delle posizioni esistenti.

È possibile aprire la Finestra conto mediante: 
• la postazione TWS classica, cliccando sull'icona Conto o selezionando Finestra conto dalla voce Conto del menu (Figura 1)
 

Figura 1

 

• la postazione TWS Mosaic, cliccando sulla voce Conto del menu e poi selezionando Finestra conto (Figura 2)

Figura 2

 

Dopo l'apertura della schermata è necessario scorrere verso il basso fino alla voce Requisiti di margine e poi cliccare sul segno + nell'angolo in alto a destra per espandere la sezione.  Le commissioni di esposizione, denominate rispettivamente "ultima" e "prossima attesa", sono ivi dettagliate per ogni categoria di prodotto cui si applicano (es. azioni, petrolio).  Si prega di notare che il saldo indicato alla voce "ultima" rappresenta la commissione aggiornata all'ultima data in cui è stata addebitata (si ricorda che le commissioni sono computerizzate in base alle posizioni in essere alla data di chiusura e addebitate di lì a breve).  Il saldo "prossimo atteso" rappresenta la commissione attesa alla data di chiusura in essere sulla base dell'attività della posizione rispetto al calcolo precedente (Figura 3).

Figura 3

 

In caso di sezione nascosta è possibile modificare la visualizzazione predefinita facendo un segno di spunta nella casellina a fianco di un elemento affinché tale elemento sia sempre visualizzato.

 

Si veda l'articolo KB2275 per informazioni sull'utilizzo di Risk Navigator relative alla gestione e alla stima della Commissione di esposizione e il KB2276 per verificare la Commissione di esposizione attraverso la schermata Anteprima ordine.

Anteprima ordine - Controllo impatto commissione di esposizione

IB permette ai titolari del conto di verificare l'eventuale impatto di un ordine sulla Commissione di esposizione attesa mediante una funzionalità pensata per un utilizzo prima dell'inoltro dell'ordine. Tale funzionalità fornisce un preavviso di commissione grazie al quale è possibile modificare l'ordine prima della sua trasmissione e diminuire o annullare la commissione stessa.

Per attivare questa funzionalità è necessario cliccare con il pulsante destro del mouse sulla riga dell'ordine, dopodiché si aprirà la finestra Anteprima ordine contenente un link denominato "Controllo impatto commissione di esposizione" (si veda il riquadro evidenziato in rosso nella Figura I qui di seguito).

 Figura I

 

Cliccando sul link si aprirà una finestra raffigurante l'eventuale Commissione di esposizione associata alle posizioni esistenti, la variazione della commissione in caso di ordine processato e la commissione totale risultante una volta processato l'ordine (si veda il riquadro evidenziato in rosso nella Figura II qui di seguito).  I saldi sono suddivisi ulteriormente per categoria di prodotto alla quale le commissioni si applicano (es. azioni, petrolio). I titolari del conto possono chiudere la finestra senza inoltrare l'ordine qualora ritengano l'impatto della commissione eccessivo.

Figura II

 

Si veda l'articolo KB2275 per informazioni sull'utilizzo di Risk Navigator relative alla gestione e alla stima della Commissione di esposizione e il KB2344 per il monitoraggio delle commissioni mediante la Finestra conto

Vista previa de orden - Consulte impacto de tarifa de exposición

IB proporciona una función que permite a los titulares de cuenta comprobar qué impacto, si lo hubiere, tendría una orden sobre la Tarifa de Exposición proyectada. La función debería utilizarse antes de enviar la orden, para proporcionar una notificación por adelantado respecto a la tarifa y permitir que se realicen cambios en la orden antes de su envío para minimizar o eliminar la tarifa.

Esta función se activa si hace clic derecho en la línea de orden; se abrirá la ventana Vista Previa de Orden. Esta ventana contiene un enlace llamado "Comprobar el impacto de tarifa de exposición" (vea la casilla destacada en rojo en el ejemplo 1 siguiente).

Ejemplo I

 

Si hace clic en el enlace, se expandirá la ventana y se mostrará la tarifa de exposición, si la hubiere, asociada con las posiciones actuales, el cambio de la tarifa si se ejecutara la orden y la tarifa total resultante al ejecutarse la orden (vea la casilla destacada en rojo en el Ejemplo II siguiente).  Estos saldos se desglosan más aún por clasificación de producto a la cual se aplica la tarifa (por eje. liquidez, crudo). Los titulares de cuenta pueden simplemente cerrar la ventana sin transmitir la orden si consideran que el impacto en la tarifa es excesivo.

Ejemplo II

 

Por favor, consulte el artículo KB2275 para información respecto al uso del Risk Navigator de IB para gestionar y proyectar la tarifa de exposición y el artículo KB2344 para monitorizar tarifas a través de la Ventana de Cuenta.

Leveraged Forex Transactions

Introduction

IB classifies Forex transactions as either conversions or leveraged, with the ability to engage in leveraged transactions subject to receipt of the Leveraged Forex trading permission requested through the account application process or afterwards via Account Management.  As is the case with other products, the granting of Leveraged Forex trading permissions is subject to client qualifications and regulatory eligibility.  The following article provides an overview of leveraged forex transactions including a definition and working examples.

 

Overview

A forex conversion consists of exchanging a long position in one particular currency for a long position in another or exchanging a long position in order to close out a short position in another.  An example would be a client holding a long EUR balance, seeking to exchange it, in whole or part, for USD.  This particular transaction is not leveraged as it requires no financing on the part of IB and can be performed in either a cash or margin type account.

A leveraged forex transaction , in contrast, is one which is entered into on a margin basis or financed by IB.  Here, IB employs an algorithm which assesses account balances at the time a forex order is placed to determine whether it requires leverage. A leveraged condition requires that all of the following 3 tests be met:
 

1. If a short balance in any non-base currency exists; and,
2. If the sum of all short non-base currency cash balances (absolute value in when translated in the Base currency) exceeds the sum of positive non-cash asset values; and,
3. If the deficiency, if any, computed in test #2 exceeds the total NLV of the account.
 

Examples of Leveraged Forex transactions (all balances in USD equivalent):
 

Scenario 1

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (15,000) 0
USD 20,000 0

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD cash balance of 15,000)
Test 2: Leveraged (As short CAD cash balance of 15,000 exceeds long non-cash asset balances of 0)
Test 3: Leveraged (As Test 2 deficiency of 15,000 exceeds NLV of 5,000 by 10,000)

 

Scenario 2

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (55,000) 40,000
USD 30,000 (10,000)

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD balance of 55,000)
Test 2: Leveraged (As short CAD cash balance of 55,000 exceeds long CAD non-cash asset balance of 40,000 by 15,000)
Test 3: Leveraged (As Test 2 deficiency of 15,000 exceeds NLV of 5,000 by 10,000)

Scenario 3

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (10,000) (5,000)
USD 30,000 (10,000)

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD balance of 10,000)
Test 2: Leveraged (As short CAD cash balance of 10,000 exceeds long non-cash asset balances of 5,000 by 10,000)
Test 3: Leveraged (As Test 2 deficiency of 10,000 exceeds NLV of 5,000 by 5,000)

 

 

Examples of  Forex transactions that are not leveraged (all balances in USD equivalent):

Scenario 1

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD 0 (15,000)
USD 0 20,000

Test 1: Non-Leveraged (As there are no short cash balances)
Test 2: N/A
Test 3: N/A

Scenario 2

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD 0 (15,000)
USD 20,000 0

Test 1: Non-Leveraged (As there are no short cash balances)
Test 2: N/A
Test 3: N/A


Scenario 3

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (15,000) 0
USD 0 20,000

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD balance of 15,000)
Test 2: Non-Leveraged (As long USD non-cash asset balance of 20,000 exceeds short CAD cash balance of 15,000)
Test 3: N/A

Scenario 4

CURRENCY CASH NON-CASH ASSETS
CAD (5,000) (10,000)
USD 30,000 (10,000)

Test 1: Leveraged (Due to short CAD balance of 5,000)
Test 2: Leveraged (As short CAD cash balance of 5,000 exceeds long non-cash asset balances of 0 by 5,000)
Test 3: Non-Leveraged (As Test 2 deficiency of 5,000 fully offset by NLV of 5,000)

 

Exposure Fee Monitoring via Account Window

The Account Window provides the high-level information suitable for monitoring one's account on a real-time basis. This includes key balances such as total equity and cash, the portfolio composition and margin balances for determining compliance with requirements and available buying power.  This window also includes information relating to the most recently assessed exposure fee and a projection of the next fee taking into consideration current positions.

To open the Account Window: 
• From TWS classic workspace, click on the Account icon, or from the Account menu select Account Window (Exhibit 1)
 

Exhibit 1

 

• From TWS Mosaic workspace, click on Account from the menu, and then select Account Window (Exhibit 2)

Exhibit 2

 

After opening the window, scroll down to the Margin Requirements section and click on the + sign in the upper-right hand corner to expand the section.  There, the "Last" and "Estimated Next" exposure fees will be detailed for each of the product classifications to which the fee applies (e.g., Equity, Oil).  Note that the "Last" balance represents the fee as of the date last assessed (note that fees are computed based upon open positions held as of the close of business and assessed shorly thereafter).  The "Estimated Next" balance represents the projected fee as of the current day's close taking into account position activity since the prior calculation (Exhibit 3).

Exhibit 3

 

To set the default view when the section is collapsed, click on the checkbox alongside any line item and those line items will remain displayed at all times.

 

Please see KB2275 for information regarding the use of IB's Risk Navigator for managing and projecting the Exposure Fee and KB2276 for verifying exposure fee through the Order Preview screen.

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