"EMIR": Reporting to Trade Repository Obligations and Interactive Brokers Delegated Service to help meet your obligations

 

1. Background: In 2009 the G20 pledged to undertake reforms aimed at increasing transparency and reducing counterparty risk in the OTC derivatives market post the financial crisis of 2008. The European market infrastructure regulation (“EMIR”) implements most of these pledges in the EU. EMIR is a EU regulation and entered into force on 16 August 2012.
 
2. Financial instruments and asset classes reportable under EMIR: OTC and Exchange Traded derivatives for the following asset classes: credit, interest, equity, commodity and foreign exchange derivatives Reporting obligation does not apply to exchange traded warrants.
 
3. Who do EMIR reporting obligations apply to: Reporting obligations normally apply to all counterparties established in the EU with the exception of natural persons. They apply to:
* Financial Counterparties (“FC”)
* Non-financial counterparties above the clearing threshold (“NFC+”)
* Non-financial counterparties below the clearing threshold (“NFC-“)
* Third country Entities outside the EU (“TCE”) in some limited circumstances
 
The reporting obligations essentially apply to any entity established in the EU that has entered into a derivatives contract.
 
4. Financial counterparties (“FC”): include banks, investment firms, credit institutions, insurers, UCITS and pension schemes and Alternative Investment Fund managed by an AIFM. The Alternative Investment Fund (“AIF”) will only become an FC if the manager of that AIF is authorised under the Alternative Investment Fund Managers Directive (“AIFMD”), so a fund outside the EU may be subject to EMIR reporting requirements.
 
5. Non-Financial Counterparty (“NFC”): A NFC is defined as an undertaking established in the EU other than those defined as a FC or a Central Counterparty (“CCP”), like the Clearing Houses. NFCs have lesser obligations than FCs. But when an NFC breaches a “clearing threshold” it becomes an NFC+, when it is subject to almost the same obligations as FCs (including collateral and valuation reporting). NFCs below the clearing threshold are known as NFC-s. In practice anyone other than a natural individual person (i.e. an individual or individuals operating a joint
account) is defined as an NFC- and subject to reporting obligations.
 
INTERACTIVE BROKERS DELEGATED REPORTING SERVICE TO HELP MEET YOUR REPORTING OBLIGATIONS
 
6. What service will Interactive Brokers offer to its customers to facilitate them fulfill their reporting obligations i.e. will it offer a delegated service for trade reporting as well as facilitating issuance of LEI: As noted above, both FCs
and NFCs must report details of their transactions (both OTC and ETD) to authorized Trade Repositories. This obligation can be discharged directly through a Trade Repository, or by delegating the operational aspects of reporting to the counterparty or a third party (who submits reports on their behalf).
 
Interactive Brokers intends to facilitate the issuance of LEIs and offer delegated reporting to customers for whom it executes and clear trades, subject to customer consent, to the extent it is possible to do so from an operational, legal and regulatory perspective.
 
If you are subject to EMIR Reporting you will shortly be able to log into the IB Account Management system and apply for an LEI and delegate your reporting to Interactive Brokers.
 
We intend to include valuation reporting but only if and to the extent and for so long as it is permissible for Interactive brokers to do so from a legal and regulatory perspective and where the counterparty is required to do so (i.e. in cases where it is a FC or NFC+).
 
However, this would be subject to condition that Interactive Brokers uses its own trade valuation for reporting purposes.
 
7. Can EMIR reporting be delegated: EMIR allows either counterparty to delegate reporting to a third-party. If a counterparty or CCP delegates reporting to a third party, it remains ultimately responsible for complying with the reporting obligation. Likewise, the counterparty or CCP must ensure that the third party to whom it has delegated reports correctly. Brokers and dealers do not have a reporting obligation when acting purely in an agency capacity. If a block trade gives rise to multiple transactions, each transaction would have to be reported.
 
FUNDS AND SUB-FUNDS - The obligations under EMIR are on the counterparty which may be the fund or sub-fund. The fund or sub-fund that is the principal to transactions will have to provide details of their classification (FC, NFC+ or NFC-), authorization for delegated reporting and Legal Entity Identifier (“LEI”) application.
 
8. Exemptions under Article 1(4) and 1(5) of EMIR: Articles 1(4) and 1(5) of EMIR exempt certain entities from some or all of the obligations set out in EMIR, depending on their classification. Specifically, exempt entities under Article 1(4) are exempt from all obligations set out in EMIR, while exempt entities under Article 1(5) are exempt from all obligations except the reporting obligation, which continues to apply.
 
9. Entities qualifying under Article 1(4) and 1(5) of EMIR: Article 1(4) initially applied only to EU central banks, Union public bodies involved in the management of public debt and the Bank for International Settlements. Subsequently the
application of the Article 1(4) exemption was extended to include the central banks and debt management offices of the United States and Japan. The Commission has indicated that further foreign central banks and debt management offices may be added in the future if they are satisfied that equivalent regulation is put in place in those jurisdictions. Article 1(5) broadly exempts the following categories of entities:
- Multilateral development banks;
- Non-commercial public sector entities owned and guaranteed by central government; and
- The European Financial Stability Facility and the European Stability Mechanism.
 
10. OTC and Exchange Traded Derivatives: There is no distinction between reporting of exchange traded derivatives (“ETDs”) and OTC contracts within the level 1 regulations, implementing technical standards, or regulatory technical standards of ESMA.
 
The contract is to be identified by using a unique product identifier. In addition, a unique trade identifier will be required for transactions. In the event that a globally agreed system of product identifiers does not materialise, it has been suggested that International Securities Identification numbers (“ISIN”), Alternative Instruments Identifiers (“AII”), or Classification of Financial Instruments Codes (“CFI”) may serve as alternatives.
 
11. Trade repository Interactive Brokers use: Interactive Brokers (U.K.) Limited will use the services of DTCC Derivatives Repository Ltd. (“DDRL”), which is part of the U.S. DTCC, based in the United Kingdom.
 
12. Issuance of Legal Entity Identifiers (“LEI”)
 
All EU counterparties entering into derivative trades will need to have a LEI In order to comply with the reporting obligation. The LEI will be used for the purpose of reporting counterparty data.
 
A LEI is a unique identifier or code attached to a legal person or structure, that will allow for the unambiguous identification of parties to financial transactions.
 
“EMIR”: Further Information on Reporting to Trade Repository Obligations
 
13. Thresholds which determine whether an NFC is an NFC+ or NFC-: Breaching any of the following clearing threshold values will mean classification as an NFC+. Positions must be calculated on a notional, 30-day rolling average basis:
• EUR 1 billion in gross notional value for OTC credit derivative contracts;
• EUR 1 billion in gross notional value for OTC equity derivative contracts;
• EUR 3 billion in gross notional value for OTC interest rate derivative contracts;
• EUR 3 billion in gross notional value for OTC FX derivative contracts; and
• EUR 3 billion in gross notional value for OTC commodity derivative contracts and other OTC derivative contracts not covered above.
 
For the purpose of calculating whether a clearing threshold has been breached, an NFC must aggregate the transactions of all non-financial entities in its group (and determine whether or not those entities are inside or outside the EU) but discount transactions entered into for hedging or treasury purposes. The term “hedging transactions” in this context means transactions objectively measureable as reducing risks directly relating to the commercial activity or treasuring financing activity of the NFC or its group.
 
14. Reporting Of Exposures: FCs and NFC+s must report on:
 
* Mark-to-market or mark-to-model valuations of each contract
* Details of all collateral posted, either on a transaction or portfolio basis (i.e. where collateral is calculated on the basis of net positions resulting from a set of contracts rather than being posted on a transaction by transaction basis)
 
15. Timetable to report to Trade repositories: The reporting start date is 12 February 2014:
 
* New contracts they enter into on or after February 12th, on a trade date +1;
* Positions open from contracts entered into on or after 16 August 2012 and still open on February 12th, 2014 must be reported to a trade repository by February 12th 2014;
* Positions open from contracts entered into before 16th August and still open on February 12th, 2014 must be reported to a trade repository by 13th May 2014;
* Reporting of valuation and collateral must be reported to a trade repository by 12th August 2014;
* Contracts that were either entered before, on or after 16 August 2012 but not open on 12th February 2014 must be reported to a trade repository by February 12th, 2017.
 
16. What must be reported and when: Information must be reported on the counterparties to each trade (counterparty data) and the contracts themselves (common data).
 
There are 26 items that must be reported with regard to counterparty data, and 59 items that must be reported with regard to common data. These items are set out within tables 1 and 2 of the Annex to the ESMA’s Regulatory technical standards on minimum details to be reported to trade repositories.
 
Counterparties and CCPs have to make a report:
 
* when a contract is entered into
* when a contract is modified
* when a contract is terminated
 
A report must be made no later than the working day following the conclusion, modification or termination of the contract.
 
17. What has to be reported and who is responsible for reporting: Reporting applies to both OTC derivatives and exchange traded derivatives. The reporting obligation applies to counterparties to a trade, irrespective of their classification. Please note:
 
* Reporting of valuation and collateral is only required for FCs and NFC+s
* Every trade must be normally be reported by both counterparties.
 
THIS INFORMATION IS GUIDANCE FOR INTERACTIVE BROKERS CLEARED CUSTOMERS ONLY
 
NOTE: THE INFORMATION ABOVE IS NOT INTENDED TO BE A COMPREHENSIVE, EXHAUSTIVE NOR A DEFINITIVE INTERPRETATION OF THE REGULATION, BUT A SUMMARY OF ESMA’S EMIR REGULATION AND RESULTING TRADE REPOSITORY REPORTING OBLIGATIONS.

 

Determining Tick Value

Financial instruments are subject to minimum price changes or increments which are commonly referred to as ticks. Tick values vary by instrument and are determined by the listing exchange. IB provides this information directly from the Contract Search tool on the website or via the Trader Workstation (TWS). To access from TWS, enter a symbol on the quote line, right click and from the drop-down window select the Contract Info and then Details menu options.  The contract specifications window for the instrument will then be displayed (Exhibit 1).

To determine the notional value of a tick, multiple the tick increment by the contract trade unit or multiplier.  As illustrated in the example below, the LIFFE Mini Silver futures contact has a tick value or minimum increment of .001 which, when multiplied by the contract multiplier of 1,000 ounces, results in a minimum tick value of $1.00 per contract.  Accordingly, every tick change up or down results in a profit or loss of $1.00 per LIFFE Mini Silver futures contract.

 

Exhibit 1

Compatibility between MetaTrader and IB

Übersicht: 

IB provides to its account holders a variety of proprietary trading platforms at no cost and therefore does not actively promote or offer the platforms of other vendors. Nonetheless, as IB's principal trading platform, the TraderWorkstation (TWS), operates with an open API, there are numerous third-party vendors who create order entry, charting and various other analytical programs which operate in conjunction with the TWS for purposes of executing orders through IB. As these API specifications are made public, we are not necessarily aware of all vendors who create applications to integrate with the TWS but do operate a program referred to as The Marketplace@IB which operates as a self-service community bringing together third party vendors who have products and services to offer with IB customers seeking to fill a specific need.

While MetaTrader is not a participant in The Marketplace@IB, and does not support integration with the TWS, different vendors such as Trade-Commander (trade-commander.com), and jTWSdata (home.cidadevirtual.pt/jTWSdata) do offer software which they represent acts as a bridge between MetaTrader and the TWS. As is the case with other third-party software applications, IB is not in a position to provide information or recommendations as to the compatibility or operation of such software.

Commodity Futures & Futures Options Position Limits

Regulators and exchanges typically impose limits on the number of commodity positions any customer may maintain with the intent of controlling excessive speculation, deterring market manipulation, ensuring sufficient market liquidity for bona fide hedgers and to prevent disruptions to the price discovery function of the underlying market. These limits are intended as strict caps, with no one account or group of related accounts allowed to aggregate or maintain a position in excess of the stated limit. Outlined below is an overview of the various limit types, calculation considerations, enforcement and links for finding additional information.

I. POSITION LIMIT TYPES

Position limits generally fall into one of the following 4 categories:

1. All Months Limit - apply to the account holder's positions summed across all delivery months for a given contract (e.g. positions in CBOT Oat futures contract for the Mar, May, Jul, Sep and Dec delivery months combined).

2. Single Month Limit - apply to the account holder's positions in any given futures delivery month (e.g. positions in CBOT Oat futures contract for any of the Mar, May, Jul, Sep and Dec delivery months). Note that in certain instances, the limit may vary by delivery month.

3. Spot Month Limit - apply to the account holder's positions in the contract month currently in delivery. For example, the March contract month for a product having delivery months of March, June, September and December, while considered a nearby month at the start of the year, does not become a spot month contract for position limit purposes until the date it actually enters delivery. Most spot month limits become effective at the close of trading on the day prior to the First Notice Date (e.g., if the First Notice Date for a Dec contract is the last trading date of the prior month, then the spot month limit would apply as of the close of business on Nov 29th). In other instances, the limit goes into effect or tightens during the last 3-10 days of trading.

4. Expiration Month Limit - expiration month limits apply to the account holder's positions in the contract currently in its last month of trading.  Most expiration month limits become effective at the open of trading on the first business day of the last trading month.  If the contract ceases trading before delivery begins, then the expiration month may precede the delivery month. (e.g., if the last trade date for a Dec contract is Nov 30th, then the expiration month limit would apply as Nov 1st). In other instances, the limit goes into effect or tightens during the last 3-10 days of trading.

 

II. CALCULATION CONSIDERATIONS

- Position limits are determined by aggregating option and futures contracts. In the case of option contracts, the position is converted to an equivalent futures position based upon the delta calculations provided by the exchange.

- Positions in contracts with non-standard notional values (e.g. mini-sized contracts) are normalized prior to aggregation.

- Most limits are applied on a net position basis (long - short) although certain are applied on a gross position basis (long + short). For purposes of determining the net or gross position, long calls and short puts are considered equivalent to long futures positions (subject to the delta adjustment) and short calls and long puts equivalent to short futures positions.

- Limits are imposed on both an intra-day and end of day basis.

 

III. ENFORCING LIMITS

IB acts to prevent account holders from entering into transactions which would result in a position limit violation. This process includes monitoring account activity, sending a series of notifications intended to allow the account holder to self-manage exposure and placing trading restrictions upon accounts approaching a limit. Examples of notifications which are sent via email, TWS bulletin and Message Center are as follows:

1. Information Level - sent when the position exceeds 50% of the limit. Intended to inform as to the existence of the position limit and its level.

2. Warning Level - sent when the position exceeds 70% of the limit. Intended to provide advance warning that account will be subject to trading restrictions should exposure increase to 90%.

3. Restriction Level - sent when the position exceeds 90% of the limit. Provides notice that account is restricted to closing transactions until exposure has been reduced to 85%.

 

IV. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

For additional information, including various exchange rules position limit thresholds by contract and limit type, please refer to the following website links:

CFE ( Rule 412) - http://cfe.cboe.com/publish/CFERuleBook/CFERuleBook.pdf

CME (Rule 559) - http://www.cmegroup.com/rulebook/CME/index.html

CME (CBOT Rule 559) - http://www.cmegroup.com/rulebook/CBOT/index.html

CME (NYMEX Rule 559) - http://www.cmegroup.com/rulebook/NYMEX/index.html

ELX Futures (Rule IV-11) - http://www.elxfutures.com/PDFs/Rulebooks/ELX-FUTURES-RULEBOOK.aspx

ICE US / NYBOT (Rules 6.26 to 6.28) - https://www.theice.com/publicdocs/rulebooks/futures_us/6_Regulatory.pdf

NYSE LIFFE (Rule 420) - http://www.nyseliffeus.com/rulebook

OneChicago (Rule 414) - http://www.onechicago.com/wp-content/uploads/rules/OneChicago_Current_Rulebook.pdf

 

 

Overview of the OneChicago NoDiv Contract

The OneChicago NoDiv single stock futures contract (OCX.NoDivRisk) differs from the Exchange's traditional single stock futures contract by virtue of its handling of ordinary distributions (e.g., dividends, capital gains, etc.).  Whereas the traditional contract is not adjusted for such ordinary distributions (the discounted expectations are reflected in the price), the NoDiv contract is intended to remove the risk of dividend expectations through a price adjustment made by the clearinghouse. The adjustment is made on the morning of the ex-date to ensure that the effect of the distribution is removed from the daily mark-to-market or cash variation pay/collect.

For example, assume a NoDiv contract which closes at $50.00 on the business day prior the ex-date at which stockholders of a $1.00 dividend are to be determined. On the ex-date OCC will adjust that prior day's final settlement price from $50.00 downward by the amount of the dividend to $49.00. The effect of this adjustment will be to ensure that the dividend has no impact upon the cash variation pay/collect as of ex-date close (i.e., short position holder does not receive the $1.00 variation collect and the long holder incur the $1.00 payment).


Considerations for Optimizing Order Efficiency

Account holders are encouraged to routinely monitor their order submissions with the objective of optimizing efficiency and minimizing 'wasted' or non-executed orders.  As inefficient orders have the potential to consume a disproportionate amount of system resources. IB measures the effectiveness of client orders through the Order Efficiency Ratio (OER).  This ratio compares aggregate daily order activity relative to that portion of activity which results in an execution and is determined as follows:

 

OER = (Order Submissions + Order Revisions + Order Cancellations) / (Executed Orders + 1)

Outlined below is a list of considerations which can assist with optimizing (reducing) one's OER:

 

1. Cancellation of Day Orders - strategies which use 'Day' as the Time in Force setting and are restricted to Regular Trading Hours should not initiate order cancellations after 16:00 ET, but rather rely upon IB processes which automatically act to cancel such orders. While the client initiated cancellation request which serve to increase the OER, IB's cancellation will not.

2. Modification vs. Cancellation - logic which acts to cancel and subsequently replace orders should be substituted with logic which simply modifies the existing orders. This will serve to reduce the process from two order actions to a single order action, thereby improving the OER.

3. Conditional Orders - when utilizing strategies which involve the pricing of one product relative to another, consideration should be given to minimizing unnecessary price and quantity order modifications. As an example, an order modification based upon a price change should only be triggered if the prior price is no longer competitive and the new suggested price is competitive.

4. Meaningful Revisions – logic which serves to modify existing orders without substantially increasing the likelihood of the modified order interacting with the NBBO should be avoided. An example of this would be the modification of a buy order from $30.50 to $30.55 on a stock having a bid-ask of $31.25 - $31.26.

5. RTH Orders – logic which modifies orders set to execute solely during Regular Trading Hours based upon price changes taking place outside those hours should be optimized to only make such modifications during or just prior to the time at which the orders are activated.

6. Order Stacking - Any strategy that incorporates and transmits the stacking of orders on the same side of a particular underlying should minimize transmitting those that are not immediately marketable until the orders which have a greater likelihood of interacting with the NBBO have executed.

7. Use of IB Order Types - as the revision logic embedded within IB-supported order types is not considered an order action for the purposes of the OER, consideration should be given to using IB order types, whenever practical, as opposed to replicating such logic within the client order management logic. Logic which is commonly initiated by clients and whose behavior can be readily replicated by IB order types include: the dynamic management of orders expressed in terms of an options implied volatility (Volatility Orders), orders to set a stop price at a fixed amount relative to the market price (Trailing Stop Orders), and orders designed to automatically maintain a limit price relative to the NBBO (Pegged-to-Market Orders).

The above is not intended to be an exhaustive list of steps for optimizing one's orders but rather those which address the most frequently observed inefficiencies in client order management logic, are relatively simple to implement and which provide the opportunity for substantive and enduring improvements. For further information or questions, please contact the Customer Service Technical Assistance Center.

 

Special risks of Exchange For Physical (EFP) products

Übersicht: 

The following article discusses the special risks associated with hedged financing transactions which employ the traditional OneChicago single stock future contract (designated by product symbol suffix of "1C") which is eligible for adjustment on special dividends or distributions but not adjusted for ordinary dividendsThe particular risk described below can be avoided through use of the Exchange's dividend protected or NoDiv product (designated by product symbol suffix of "1D") which are adjusted to remove the impact of all dividends.

Discussion:

Account holders transacting in EFPs, including Low Synthetic Yield positions using the OneChicago traditional single stock future ("1C" product) are advised to pay particular attention to the risks inherent in such positions, the effect of which may be to significantly alter the cost of the position.  These risks generally originate from corporate actions, specifically those involving a distribution to the holder of record for the stock with no corresponding adjustment made to the futures contract deliverable.

 
As background, a Low Synthetic Yield position, or EFP purchase, consists of a long single stock future coupled with a short underlying stock position. Traders maintaining this type of position are typically seeking to avail themselves of market implied borrowing rates which are more advantageous than those quoted by carrying brokers (i.e., the stock is sold and bought forward at a net carrying cost which is lower than that of the available lending rate). In certain instances, however, the single stock future may be trading at parity or even at a discount to the stock price, seemingly implying a no-cost loan of the short sale proceeds and/or a locked-in profit from selling the stock at a higher price today than that which one will be obligated to deliver at in the future. 
 
Take, for example, the ING Group N.V. (ADR) EFP.  On October 29, 2009, the stock was quoted at $13.29 and the Dec '09 future at $12.50, an implied annualized discount of approximately 43%. While the ability to sell the stock then at $13.29 and buy it back at a 51 day forward price of $12.50 appeared to guarantee a locked in profit of $0.79 per share (excluding commissions and any carrying costs), traders would also have had to take into account the likely impact of the firm's announcement three days prior of a restructuring plan which included the issuance of rights providing for repayment of a capital injection made by the Dutch State.  Under the terms of this plan, announced to the public on November 18th following European Commission approval, shareholders of record as of November 27th were to receive a distribution of non-transferable rights on November 30th.  
 
Also critical to the risk of this position was the determination announced by OCC's Securities Committee on November 23rd that no adjustment would be made to the futures contract.  As a result, traders maintaining a Low Synthetic Yield position comprised of the long future and short stock held through the ex-date of November 24th, were obligated to deliver the rights on November 30th (then priced at approximately $3.32 per share) to the stock lender with no offsetting adjustment made to the long future.  The effect of this corporate action upon traders initiating a single EFP position at the October 29th prices quoted above and exiting all positions at the November 30th closing prices would not have been to realize a gain, but rather sustain a loss (excluding commissions and any carrying costs) of approximately $254.00.  A summary of this transaction is provided below.
 
Product/Action
Cash
Stock
-Sell 100 @ $13.29 on 10/29/09
-Buy 100 @ $9.50 on 11/30/09
Net
 
 $1,329 
 (950)
$379 
Future
- Buy 1 contract @ $12.50 on 10/29/09
- Sell 1 contract @ $9.49 on 11/30/09
Net Variation
 
 
 
 
 
($301)
Right
-Buy 100 @ $3.32 on 11/30/09
 
($332)
Totals
($254)
 
 

 

Why am I subject to a commodity account trading limit of 1 contract?

Clients who are unable to trade more than one futures contract per order should first check their order presets to ensure that they have not established an order size limit in the precautionary settings.  If this is not the case,  then the restriction has likely been imposed by IB due to the client's failure to accept the Arbitration Agreement which automatically imposes a trading limit of one contract per order.  Clients decline to accept the agreement when presented through the application process but who subsequently wish to accept need to contact Customer Service to obtain and execute a physical copy of the agreement.

I receive a rejection on my futures option orders for DAX which says "No Trading Regulation", why?

U.S. residents are unable to trade options on futures for most foreign indicies, such as the DAX. 

Overview of Accumulate / Distribute Algorithm

Übersicht: 

Accumulate/Distribute is a sophisticated trading algorithm which allows one to buy or sell large orders by splitting the trade into multiple orders with the goal of reducing visibility and market impact.

When to Use
This order type is geared towards traders of large position blocks as well as high frequency traders and is intended to run unattended while logged into the TWS.
 
How to Locate
The Accumulate/Distribute algorithm can be accessed from the TraderWorkstation by selecting the Trading and then Accumulate/Distribute menu options at the top of the page or it can be added to the trading tool bar menu by clicking on the Add More Buttons icon.
 
Order Set Up
Once the trader has defined the instrument and action (buy or sell), the following parameters are to be specified:
 
  1. Total Quantity – defines the aggregate order size (e.g., shares, contracts);
  2. Trade Increment – defines the unit (e.g., shares, contracts) size for each component order;
  3. Time Increment – defines the period of time (seconds, minutes or hours) between the submission of a component order and the submission of the following order;
  4. Order Type – may select from market, limit or relative. A market order will be executed at the ask price and should only be used where, for example, a stock is highly liquid with significant bid-ask sizes. Limit and Relative order types require that the trader specify additional order relationships and the choices are numerous. The execution price, for example, may be specified as being relative to a fixed value, bid, ask or last price, VWAP, moving average or last trade. These choices may be increased or decreased by an offset factor and multiple conditions may be established. For example, one may wish to create a relative order type to match the bid price plus an offset factor of $0.01 and to ensure that they don’t lift the ask if the spread is $0.01, add a condition that the bid be no less that $0.02 beneath the ask price.
  5. How to Operate – if the trader does not check the box titled “Wait for current order to fill before submitting next order” then orders which do not meet the price conditions will continue to accumulate in accordance with the established time increment, the unexecuted orders will be aggregated into one or more potentially sizable orders at the exchange. If this box is checked, then the more restrictive the buying conditions, the greater the likelihood that the algorithm will fall behind its schedule of buying or selling at every ‘X’ interval.  If this box is checked the trader may then check the box titled “Catch up in time”. When that box has been checked and should the algorithm fall behind, the next orders will be placed immediately after their predecessor fills until such time the algorithm has caught up.
  6. Randomization – check boxes are provided to allow for a +/- 20% randomization in the time increment and a +/- 55% randomization in the trade increment. Accordingly, in the case of a 30 second time increment, this would allow for randomization of between 24 and 36 seconds between orders and in the case of a 500 share trade increment, this would allow for randomization of between 200 and 800 shares (rounded to the nearest round lot) per order. Randomization serves to minimize the likelihood of others detecting your order.
  7. RTH – a check box is provided which will allow the order to be filled outside of regular trading hours.
  8. Take up Offer Size – if a limit or relative order type is selected, the trader may input an order size which if bid (in the case of a sell order) or offered (in the case of a buy order) the trader would be willing to take in its entirety, up to the remaining portion of the total order quantity (satisfies the price conditions).
Managing the Trade
The Accumulate/Distribute algorithm also allows for conditions to be established which, if not met, will cause the algorithm to either stop permanently or resume when the conditions are again satisfied. These include the following:
 
  1. Price Range - traders may specify a price range outside of which they do not want to buy the stock;
  2. News – the trader may stop the algorithm for some period of time if there is news on the stock, for example;
  3. Position - traders may stop the algorithm based upon their position in the stock; For example, a trader running multiple algorithms one to buy the stock and another to sell in an attempt to trade the stock back and forth for a profit may decide to suspend one side if the position becomes substantially imbalanced;
  4. Stock Path – a trader, for example, may wish to suspend the algorithm if a given moving average, say the 10-minute VWAP is not at least as high as another average, say the 50-day moving average. This feature enables you to set up algorithms to trade chart points even when you are not looking at the chart at that moment;
  5. Stock Path for Multiple Symbols – this condition is similar to the last except that it calls for two symbols. Here you can put in any symbol and compare some data point regarding that symbol (e.g., 10-minute VWAP, etc.) to the same or a different data point regarding the second symbol. These comparative conditions can apply to different symbols or to the same symbol.   For example, you could specify that you want to buy a certain stock only if it has been in a continuous uptrend. So in addition to the 10-minute VWAP being higher than the 50-day moving average, you would also like the 10-day moving average to be higher than the 30-day moving average on this stock.
Other Considerations
Acceptable inputs for this algorithm include:
  1. Products – any product offered by IB (stocks, options, ETFs, bonds, futures, Forex) other than mutual funds;
  2. Order Type – market, limit or relative.

IMPORTANT NOTE

This algo will only operate when the trader is logged into the TWS.  If the trader has been logged out prior to the algo completing (either by user action or by the automated nightly restart), a message will appear upon the next log in which will allow for re-activation of the algo.

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